Evolution developing from the Resultant of Vectors
In the evolutionary journey of a living creature, any movement it makes, if it occurs continuously from generation to generation and if it is triggered by the execution of the "desire" present in its body, will have an impact on the shape of its body.
When an entity exists in the universe, it will inevitably be under the influence of conditions from both inside and outside its body.
In unicellulars, the influence of conditions from inside their bodies will result in a combination of all the characteristics of molecules, both as individuals and as a group (as if they were in one cell); later, with their characteristics now combined, they will face the external influences
In multicellulars, however, the cells will, either individually or as a group (appearing in the form of either an animal or a man), jointly face the external influences. In their interaction with external influences, they will then have to undergo various processes of adaptation, as there still remains a life process that they, as living creatures, have to endeavor to preserve.
Illustration 1 is a portrayal of a molecule supposedly to be existing in nature, exposed to external conditions. Certainly the way it responds to the external influences is different from that of its formative atoms.
Similarly, in illustration 2 a group of molecules is shown to unite themselves to form a single cell, e.g. in their attempt to simultaneously respond to the external influences, thereby representing a combination of Vectors and producing a Resultant when they undertake to respond to the external influences. In the meantime, the molecules inside respond individually.
Illustration 3 shows a tissue, a group of biological cells that perform a similar function, each having a Resultant as a product of the Vectors its molecules. But in the unit of body of a multicellular, each cell Resultant turns into a Vector in its group, thus producing a Resultant of the whole group of cells.
Illustration 4 depicts a plant, an animal, and a human being, which then was but a union of the various cell tissues that eventually takes shape as they do today. All Vectors of the tissues will form Resultant from that entity. It is this that has made living creatures able to move or that has made their life process, representative of the combination of those movements that originally occurred in the molecules. That is why all natural characteristics of the whole entity, either as individuals or as a group, will still be evident here. This results in the development of characteristics that are adaptive to their environment, thereby producing body shapes and bodily material that are effective and efficient for the fulfillment of their life needs.
If it is true the elongation of the giraffe's neck was caused by such external influences that had caused the animal to be moved to fulfill its heart's desire, and if it is equally true that it was this very issue that had influenced its evolutionary journey, this is precisely the explanation we need.
Example: The giraffe, which feeds on leaves, tried to elongate its neck to such an extent that the cells or molecules inside them shift. Because of their flexibility and due to the earth's gravity, these molecules should, in fact, have been able to get back to their position.
However, because such elongation of the neck occurred continuously and involved considerable force, particularly when trying to reach those leaves high up on tall trees, the molecules had never been able to get perfectly back to their original position, no matter how flexible they were and how much they tried.
The lack in their effort to get back to their original position could have been up to only one Angstrom behind, yet after millions of years of repetition such elongation my bring about extraordinary consequences. Certainly this happened not only to the neck but also to all other parts of the body, including the legs.
The giraffe, which when it first appeared in this world, was just a short creature (see illustration) has, after so many years of evolution, turned into a tall creature. Such a thing also occurred to the trunk or proboscis of insects, birds or other animals attempting to elongate the fore part of their heads in their effort to get what they wanted.
Another example are the toes of a horse. Though its ancestors were originally five-toed animals living around forest streams, environmental and climatic changes had, however, caused the five toes to evolve into a single toe. This had enabled it to flee faster from its predator—when trying to gallop faster, the horse would get all its five fingers united close together so that they would be able to gain extra energy.
Such Resultant had caused the molecules to be attracted and united to each other, thus forming a union among them.(see illustration 2, 3, 4.). This event certainly did not occur within only a period of one generation, yet that slight change was indeed passed on to the descendants, which then added some more changes, though also slight, and this goes on and on such that eventually what took place was an evolution. Here we simply refer to it as "the evolution of the Resultant". i.e. an evolution that has developed from the Resultant as the outcome of the execution of the various collective will" of the various factors inside the body of living creatures.
In human beings and animals that have brains, this could be said to be an Evolution resulting from the work of the brain when running its life process. The result of such evolution is more visible in the shape of the body itself and in that part of the body's surface that is directly exposed to external influences.
It is necessary to note down here that all the explanations above have nothing to do with the various theories proposed by earlier scientists, e.g. Lamarch. Whatever is described here is purely one that is based on such consideration as that it was the presence of the Resultant of the various Vectors inside the body of a living creature that had, in fact, served to trigger this evolutionary change.
Certainly the three factors were by no means independent of each other; rather, they worked shoulder to shoulder. That's why combinations or mutual attractions between these factors are believed to have been working on those living creatures. The tail of an animal was, besides being an outcome of the molecular inertia of the tail-growing molecules, concurrently a result of the animal's effort to take advantage of it in its effort to keep its body in balance—though admittedly this may not have held true of all tails of all animals.
In other words, it could be said that these movements of molecules within the body of a living creature, the sizes of which were in measurements of Angstrom, are a sheer philosophical representation of the occurrence of evolution.
Molecular movements caused by the Resultant Vector.
Unlike molecular inertia, which had caused a change in the body of living creatures during their evolutionary journey, here "the execution of the will" as the Resultant of a living creature had led to something different.
In illustration 1, the spherical ball is envisioned to be a molecule, the movement of which is triggered by the execution of the will of a living creature, particularly an animal, in its attempt to get what it desires. The iron ball could be analogized to a molecule inside the cell, or to cells inside the body of an animal, which in this case is supposedly to be present in the neck of a giraffe.
Let's here take a giraffe as an example: the giraffe which is so much tempted by the fresh leaves of a tree, will stretch its head, to as maximal a degree as possible, in order to reach the leaves that it so much desires.(illustration 2).
The molecules at its neck can be analogized to the spherical ball at "b", which in the illustration is evidently being pushed, to the farthest possible point, towards the position of "a" so that it will be able to get what its heart desires. As soon as it succeeds in getting the leaves, it begins to relax its neck to its original position. The question now is, "Will it be possible for all of its molecules to really return to their original position?" The answer is "no!". The molecules will be able to return to a position that is only almost their original position (not exactly where they originally were), only if the giraffe does not let its neck remain stretched on and on.
In this way, with the help of the earth's gravity, the molecules at the neck can get back to their "original position". However, if the giraffe lets its neck remain stretched continuously, the molecules will find themselves positioned as shown in illustration 3, such that even with a space of only one Angstrom apart per day during its evolutionary journey, the resulting giraffe will be one with a very long neck. This is a result of its descendants' inheriting the "x" space apart, even if this can be only as minute as one Angstrom. Certainly it is difficult for us to see such a space even after 100,000 generations later.
The explanations for Illustration 5 are somewhat similar to those concerning the elongation of the tail of an animal.
The neck of the giraffe which originally is in a position as shown by A, later takes a position as depicted by B, i.e. at the time when the giraffe elongates its neck to reach the fruit.
Consequently there occur spaces between these molecules, though at irregular intervals. As soon as the animal stops its forward movement, these molecules return to their original position, though not quite precisely at their original spots.
In the illustration, the row of molecules, which originally resembles that as shown in 5A, becomes like what is shown in B as a result of the giraffe's stretching its neck and then relaxing it again.
The row of molecules tries to resume its 5A position but the best it could achieve is a position as shown in 5C, only because of the limitedness of its flexibility. There thus occurs a discrepancy in length between the row of molecules in 5A and that in 5C, though by only 1 Angstrom. Later, as soon as its condition becomes stable, 5C becomes the new 5A, which is longer by one Angstrom that the original 5A. Such elongation occurs continuously and repeatedly, is passed on to its descendants, and will become obvious only after hundreds of thousands of generations have passed.
Please keep in mind that the above calculation is based on the assumption that such elongation occurs only once a day at a rate of only 1 Angstrom. Now, what if it is assumed that 100 Angstrom of such elongation occurs in a day. Needless to say, the evolutionary process is accelerated.
Let's go back to the calculations.
Now, if it is supposed that at each day the "x" is only 1 Angstrom, just imagine how significant the figure could be after millions of years of evolution. As 1 mm is equal to 10,000,000 Angstrom, a shift of just 1 Angstrom a day can result in x reaching 365 Angstrom a year. As such, after 100,000,000 years of evolution, the x may reach 36,500,000,000 Angstrom, which is equal to 3.650 mm or 3.65 meters.
As already mentioned above, even after 100,000 generations have passed, we have still found it hard to perceive these changes. Why is it so? If we are to stick to the above calculations, i.e. in a period of 1 year, the giraffe's neck elongates by 365 Angstrom, we could perhaps only imagine how many new generations would have to pass by before we could see an elongation of even only 2 cm of the giraffe's neck. If we assume that the average life expectancy of a giraffe is 20 years and that 5 years is age at which the animal is mature enough to mate, we can conclude that it will take 100,000 x 5 years or 500,000 years for us to see a two-centimeter elongation of its neck. A change of 365 Angstrom a year is equal to a change of 182,500,000 Angstrom in 500,000 years. As 1 mm is equal to 10,000,000 Angstrom, then a change of 182,500,000 Angstrom is equivalent to an elongation of the giraffe's neck by 18.25 mm or approximately 2 cm. Of course, what this implies is that even to observe a change of only 2 cm is extremely difficult. If it is rightly assumed that the shift that occurred in a day was 100 Angstrom, it can then be inferred that it must have taken only 1000 generation or only 5000 years to achieve a change of almost 2 cm. By implication then, it must have taken the giraffe 500,000 years to get its neck elongated to two meters as it is today.
Do keep in mind that this is but a rough calculation.
Another example of a change caused by the Resultant.
What about horse toe evolution?
Such Resultant had caused the molecules to be attracted and united to each other, thus forming a union among them. (See illustration).
Notes on the illustration:
A illustrates the leg of the five-toed horse of those days. As the horse was then often chased by predators, it naturally had to work out ways to heighten its speed. This it did by forever getting all its five toes to form one strong grip such that the molecules of the toes eventually became one as shown in illustration B. The change, which was one that was gradual and in measurements of Angstrom, would later be passed on to its descendants such that after millions of years the toes will look like what is shown in C, which is exactly what today's horse hoof looks like.
Because this is something that concerns more about the internal factors of living creatures, its further development could have something to do with Homeobox in Gene, the one related with Hox gene.
This is a possibility that scientists are expected to re-examine.
Changes of forms, e.g. elongation, shortening, and whatever changes they may be, for as long as they are caused by the Resultant holds true for all living creatures, without exception.
Those who believe that evolution does occur must certainly believe that before living creatures have such forms as they do today, they must, at the beginning, have been very simple in form. They must certainly believe that before an animal can have a neck as long as they do now, such elongation took place phase by phase. Short at its beginning, the neck then grew longer little by little until it looks like what it does today. In such a process of elongation, it is the laws of nature that have been playing an extremely dominant role.
As this concerns the neck of a multicellular animal, then such elongation, if it occurs to the cell of the neck, must necessarily have been passed on to the future generation. If as a result of the elongation more space was available, thereby providing the opportunity for the cell to divide to the limit of its maximal growth, then the animal must necessarily have had the ability to pass on such a condition to its descendants.
Thus, there can be no argument that in general the outer parts of living creatures directly exposed to external conditions did indeed perform such adaptation as driven by the execution of their collective will of all their cells, here referred to as their Resultant, as a means to fulfill and preserve their collective life process.
This is evident in their attempts to elongate their necks, to unify their fingers, to grow claws, fangs, thorns at certain parts of their bodies, to adapt the color of their bodies to the environment, to change their shapes, etc. etc. And what have in fact been the cause of all these are the Resultant of the Vectors.
Should you disapprove of the ideas presented here, do you have any other ideas concerning what is it that has caused living creatures to have all their bodily facilities during evolution?
For further explanations, read the article entitled "The Impacts of the External Influences Being Passed on to its 'Descendants'" in www.theemergenceofthecell.com
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