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Forest management project for Angola "Cabinda"

The purpose of this forest project management is to find effective manager role of poverty through improved forest management, with community participation, specifically, by tribal forest-dependent communities (regions), to assume full responsibility for the development of forest project management. The three main components include: 1) the establishment of an enabling environment for community forest management, by supporting policy, and institutional changes, as well as capacity building, both of the government, community organizations, and nongovernmental organizations. The Government's institutional framework will be strengthened, to allow the implementation of community-based forest management, while project management support will be provided, to include monitoring and evaluation, consulting services and studies, and operational costs; 2) forest management, focused on improving the productivity management duties, manager power and politics, the way for conservation of forest and wildlife and environment and, 3) forest project management, to improve forest model measures for adverse impacts
FOREST MANAGEMENT PROJECT ANGOLA "CABINDA"
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this forest project management is to find effective manager role of poverty through improved forest management, with community participation, specifically, by tribal forest-dependent communities (regions), to assume full responsibility for the development of forest project management. The three main components include: 1) the establishment of an enabling environment for community forest management, by supporting policy, and institutional changes, as well as capacity building, both of the government, community organizations, and nongovernmental organizations. The Government's institutional framework will be strengthened, to allow the implementation of community-based forest management, while project management support will be provided, to include monitoring and evaluation, consulting services and studies, and operational costs; 2) forest management, focused on improving the productivity management duties, manager power and politics, the way for conservation of forest and wildlife and environment and, 3) forest project management, to improve forest model measures for adverse impacts.

Keywords: sustainable forestry, different forms of power in the forest sector and politic, forest model " Cabinda"

Introduction
The motivation of this project come from forest of the Great Maiombe- (Congo basin), case particular as the Cabinda province on in the Angola. Forest areas and the quality of forest cover have been declining due to increased of legal and illegal exploration, conversion of forestland into agriculture, overgrazing, forest fires, and increased extraction of wood for fuel, construction, weak control and absence of specialist with high level professional and vision (Engineers, Doctors and Professors) and good management. To address this situation the project will consist of three major components:
1) Management Power and Politic to manager the rural/urban forestry through the conservation of forests and the environment, the expansion of rural afforestation, agroforestry development, and woodland management; wildlife and forest grazing management,
2) Commercial forestry development through improvement of the wood processing industry by upgrading the logging, extraction, sawmilling and manufacturing operations and
3) Forest Model of the Cabinda (Angola).
Any project in any away cannot succeed without an effective use of the power and politic. In term of power and politics, forest project manager depend of the Government vision and in some time of the World Bank (Intelligence + Money).
The political climate and power dynamics of project must be assessed in order to formulate appropriate management strategies.
The effective forest project manager and use power effectively, tree factors are important:
a) Hi-fi of the management: the fidelity is the key to the government, people, or the government to the people,
b) Appropriate choice of power base, depending upon the situation and maturity level of the project management and
c) A project manager must execute power thoughtfully and skillfully.
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Angonoticia Aug/2006 - Biologo & Professor Miloslav Jirku of R. Checo Academy of Science - The forest of the Maiombe (Cabinda) can disappear after 10 years, if...
Angonoticia Jan/2007 - Eng° D. C Nazare " Luanda IDF -Cabinet PS", Angola lack the professional specialist for manager the forest resource.
Angonoticia and Ibinda May/2006 Timoteo CH "Uige" and B Zau "Cabinda" illegal exploration of wood.

THE GOAL OF PROJECT
The goal of the Cabinda Project Forest Management (PFM) consist to develop the manager sector (Define the power and politic duties in forest sector) and implement an economically efficient, environmentally sound and socially beneficial forest management model in a Cabinda territory and disseminate the project's positive outcomes in Cabinda/Angola.

OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
The objective is simples: Find the available way for implementation of basic methods of more intensive and sustainable forest management in the project's model forest area in all territory of the Cabinda and in future in All Angola
1. SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT POWER AND POLITIC
1.1. Sustainable Forest Management
One of the best ways for forest managing is to treat the forest professional foresters with high education level and with local people foresters that have traditional knowledge. Forest management has been based on the principle of sustained yield management for generations. However, society today demands more of the forest than a sustained supply of wood and wood products. Foresters today should recognize the socio-economic role of forests, their contribution to the environment, the quality of life and their role in carbon sequestration and enhancing biodiversity. Sustainable Forest Management seeks a balance between the economic, environmental and social functions of forests.
Sustainable Forest Management as defined involves the management of the whole ecosystem, and a greater level of scientifically based management. The interaction of the forest and the wider environment is understood more keenly than ever before. As our knowledge of ecosystem processes develops, forest management skills are being improved.
PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS IN FORESTRY
Forestry is a major land use and economic activity in rural areas. Forest planning and management requires a technical knowledge of forestry. Farmers and investors getting involved in forestry should ensure that, whatever their objectives, their forestry project are developed and managed with the highest professional standards. Forest planning and management should be carried out by a person with a technical qualification in forestry.
INVESTMENT IN FORESTRY
Current and government policy has changed forestry from an activity practiced predominantly by the state to one that is attractive to private investors, particularly farmers. There are many factors that make an investment in forestry quite different to other forms of investment. The most obvious of these factors is that the return on investment is realized when the timber crop is sold at the end of the forestry rotation. An investment in forestry is analyzed by considering the various costs and revenues and the times at which they occur throughout a forestry rotation. The values attributed to different cost and revenue items occurring in the future must be predicted and used in the analysis. Investment in forestry is currently heavily subsidized through the provision of grants, premier and a favorable tax regime.
2. POWER IN THE FOREST STRUCTURE
To be effective manager forest (natural or plantation) and Ministry (Forest or Agriculture) to use power effectively, are two factors important:
l An appropriate choice of power base, depending upon the situation and maturity level of the project management,
l Manager should/must executes power thoughtfully and skillfully; good persuasive skills, effective communication and positive reinforcement will gain better results than an autocratic style.
Any project, managers must have some power to manage a project successfully, without is impossible take success. But the main issues are what kind of power they should have, what type of power they should acquire and that power is balanced by President of the country, province government to local rural forest region or by Parliament Assemble to rural forest region (judicial law) in proof of forest balance (conservation of forest and wildlife) in project environment to avoid unconstructive infighting. A project manager can obtain power from two sources: From position held and personality knowledge experience.
2.1. DIFFERENT FORMS OF POWER IN FOREST
Contacts or Network power: - This kind of the power consists by creating alliance and networks with influential local people (on the rural to forest) traditional knowledge within the private or no-government organization. Important power bases as project managers often have to work through functional managers to meet objectives.
Expert power: - Can be allows the project manager to influence people with their technical knowledge and skills,
Information power: - As been used in any project manager to influence management ideas to urban and rural peoples and can chose what information he releases and can distribute it to whoever he wishes,
Referent power: - This is gained when personnel admire a project manager as a role model,
Legitimate power: - Formal titles give a project manager authority to make requests and give orders,
Reward power: - Consist in use incentives to project personnel to ensure success, such as salary increases or promotions,
Punishment power: - A project manager can coerce personnel through the threat of reprimands, suspension or even dismissal,
Persuasion or charismatic power: - This can be useful in an environment where title formal authority exists; good results can be gained by effective communication with project personnel, professional discipline and etc
Raising one or both components can increase conclusion the total power. For stance:
Position power + Personal/Expert power=Total power
Intelligence Power + Money power + Politic power = Absolute total power
Achieving a higher organizational position in the management hierarchy can generally only increase position power. Something that project managers may not be able to control. They can have substantial control over their personal power they hold in project. Relying on position power will not work. The modern organizations as successfully only by absolute total power-they can keep () forest, ecosystem (ecology/forest and wildlife) in benefice of the future generation and explore the forest in weak country where the intelligence, money or politic power is weak, still or is not enough.
The politic are inevitable in a project forest environment, creating a need for skilful politicking and effective power brokering. Project managers can follow guidelines to deal with politics at upper management levels.
2.2. SOME MANAGEMENT DUTY FOREST PROJECT MANAGER = = FOR ACTION:
1. Create, maintain and enhance the long-term competitiveness in forest and wildlife products sector:
l By identifying and putting in place those elements essential to ensure the long-term strategic competitiveness in forest and wildlife products industry; for example, certification for products of sustainable forest management, security of wood supply, assurance of market access, improved productivity and valued-added products,
l By identifying and removing barriers to, and creating opportunities for, the development, production and marketing of services and higher value-added as well as existing products
l By carrying out periodic studies to measure the competitiveness of the forest-based industries, by province to rural local, against key timber-producing regions of the world,
l By developing new products and processing methods for currently less-utilized tree species, and developing technologies that accommodate, accept or utilize the changing properties of fiber in second-growth forests,
l By periodically assessing the sustainable supply of timber and opportunities to maintain or expand it,
l By evaluating and improving, where necessary, mechanisms for advising the Government on of forest-related trade issues regarding priorities, trade agreements, trade disputes and non-tariff barriers,
l By working with other nations to develop and implement multi-country product standards and to gain international recognition product and building codes, standards and certification systems,
l By developing new and innovative technology to reduce production costs, add value, and minimize environmental impacts and community health effects,
l By developing and implementing codes of environmental and resource management practices, self regulated by their proponents and consistent with or more stringent than government regulations, together with processes to enforce, review and refine such codes,
l By adopting energy-efficient technologies and substituting renewable for non-renewable forms of energy where technically feasible and economically viable,
l By evaluating and revising, when necessary, government regulations and programs, tenure systems, taxation regimes, and stumpage and other royalties in terms of their impact both on long-term investments in sustainable forest management and on the long-term competitiveness of forest-based enterprises
l By encouraging investment mechanisms conducive to long-term investments in forest management.
2. Create further develop economic opportunities for products other than timber:
a) By identifying barriers to, and promoting opportunities for, the development, production and marketing of products other than timber, and related services;
b) By promoting tourism, ecological and cultural tours, and outdoor forest-based recreation;
c) As well as advising other authorities on private forestry matters, their responsibilities include assisting the private forest sector to:
· Adopt sustainable management of native forests;
· Encourage the expansion of plantations;
· Foster the use and value of trees in land management;
· Develop competitive markets; and
· Manage all types of forest on both large and small areas.
3. Managing forest politics at upper management level
It's hard to single out the best method of politics at upper forest management level as certain approaches work, better than others in certain situations. Project sponsors sometimes add to corruption, bureaucracy, while in other cases may push things through. But neglecting the importance of politics at upper forest management level is risky. Therefore it is important to issues to avoid conflicts and destructive power struggles.
For stance Hi-fi of the central management is the key in any project:
l Follow management hierarchy: Channel all decisions formally through the management hierarchy,
l Appoint a project sponsor or director: this person belongs to the top management team and gives the required level of political profile to the project,
l Project council: works best when the project crosses several organizational lines and when no single top level manager is politically willing to accept total project responsibility,
l Project yourself and team: in the absence of top level responsibility, project manager must build a political Antivirus process, which the project can progress,
l Engage outside facilitators in developing strategies: to avoid internal political struggles, an external facilitator with experience in project management and technology may be called in to develop strategies,
l Engage experts (lobbyists, arbitrators) as need: may be required when three are deadlocks at upper management levels. Experts may be provide fresh insights to problems
Note: The effect of success in politic depend of the better political system...

l Ensure top management support: project will fail without top-level support. Project manager must stay politically tuned-in to upper -management,
l Develop personal power: project management are not given power, but are given a right to obtain it. They must develop their personal power by increasing their competence, expertise and technical knowledge,
l Strategic on in the modern instrument: project manager can use PM plans to mould

4. CABINDA FOREST MODEL
Objective economic:
· Ensure economic stability of the forest complex, industry and co-operate with the regional and local Government administrations in improving the system of forest taxes, inventory, investment and financing;
· Analyze advantages and shortcomings of different methods of forest use (leasing, auctioning);
· Improve marketing of forest processing products for normal and small diameter hardwood log businesses;
· Establish and improve transparent commercially system, account and audit, planning and inventory system;
· Establish mechanisms balancing mutual economic interests and enterprises, logging companies, state bodies and local self-government;
Develop forestry and forest use methods that are based on forecasting forest fund dynamics allowing for the optimal combination of economic requirements and ecological restrictions;
· Create and improve forest certification, planning, and silvicultural practices, using multiple shrub and tree species, including medicinal plants, agro-forestry, common land afforestation, and fodder and pasture development'
· Establish forestry research and scientific way, military service role and his base in forest - will also be supported, as will the preparation of a forestry inventory, an environmental and pest management plan, and a forest management information system;
· Create and develop system of control and supervising (Stabilize analysis economic and financial, data processing system and financial management and independent audit system) and etc.

Objective social:
· Promote and determine form which community can involvement in forest and forestry industry making decision, participation in forest management meetings, arrange community center and hold public hearings,
· Determine form and exploited zone for industry forest and area or forest reserves, like national reserve;
· Establish and Improve role of non-government organization (NGOS, FAO and local Human Right) in forest;
· Create a system of public access to information on forest management, forest use, of distribution of the forest income (set up an information center and hold community meetings) and etc.

Objective ecological: ensure and support environmental functions of forests including conservation of biodiversity, establishing mechanisms of sustainable forest management and forest inventory planning systems, increase the effectiveness of forest management and forest use systems ==
· Develop the system of activities in forestry aimed at maintaining biodiversity and stability of ecosystems including water resources and soils;
· Establish criteria and indicators of biological diversity and develop and apply landscape-planning method,
· Develop criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management on the level of a forest management,
· Determine the purpose oriented structure of forests according to the ecological and economic and,
· Develop information systems in Cabinda and the Forest Inventory Enterprise on the basis of geo-information systems including the automatic management system and etc

Objective information:
· Determine and establish free information system and transparent about forest movement, critters for cooperation the government and sector private in the forest industry,
· Calculate the forecast of the forest dynamics according to alternative scenarios of forest use with proper consideration (ecological restrictions and economic requirements and assess the acceptable amount of forest use based on the approved scenario), and
· Work out requirements and regional standards of local forest inventory planning and forest management, like as taxation norms, certification norms, hunting, cutting and renewal rules and develop a new cutting plan based on the results of landscape planning.

Objective education:
· Create and establish training center on the model territory of the Cabinda,
· Create demonstration grounds for different types of felling, renewal, stand cleaning and etc;
· Teach and introducing woman like element basically in forest industry,
· Education form by special informative channel of forest life, biodiversity, ecology, illegal logging and others (TV, Journal, newspaper, propaganda and etc).
Note: The complementation of any project management has achieved success by effectively implementing the guidelines mentioned above-great importance to project managers when dealing with problems at the upper management and project levels. In this case the Intelligence, Money, Politics and Power are inevitable in a project lifecycle. Project managers have to understand the importance of these four fundamental elements, the rest depend of Manager heart, love and vision effectively in the project environment to achieve project success/progress.
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Fao-1999- informative bulletin - forest industry

Future Forest project: Condition Modeling - Projection of forest landscape conditions based on land management and policy scenarios. Evaluation of the extent of change between current forest conditions and possible future conditions and the implications to wildlife habitat and other forest resources Managers and planners need better information about historical and potential future fire regimes and their effects on vegetation patterns to increase the likelihood of success of forest planning efforts. Under altered climatic regimes, shifts in potential vegetation types and modifications to new form of insects and fire regimes may have dramatic effects on potential future old forest amounts and their distribution across landscapes. For scenarios of potential futures () plan to simulate changes resulting from current and altered climate regimes and various levels of management, using a dynamic vegetation model to describe potential future shifts in the fire regime and vegetation patterns under altered climate regimes. Results will be useful to managers and policymakers involved in forest plan revision and project-level planning in fire-prone landscapes.