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if not now, soon
By Dr. Vandana Shiva
CorporationWatch August 1999

Over the past few years, Monsanto, a chemical company, has positioned
itself as an agricultural company through control over seed the first link
in the food chain. Monsanto now wants to control water, the very basis of

In 1996, Monsanto bought the biotechnology assets of Agracetus, a
subsidiary of W.R. GRACE, for $150 million and Calagene, a California
based plant biotechnology company for $340 million. In 1997, Monsanto
acquired Holden seeds, the Brazilian seed company Sementes Agrocerus and
Asgrow. In 1998, Monsanto purchased Cargill's seed operations for $1.4
billion. It bought Delta and Pine land for $1.82 billion and Dekalb for
billion. It bought Unilever's European wheat breeding business for $525
million. In India Monsanto has bought Mahyco, Maharashtra Hybrid Company,
E.I.D. Parry and Rallis. Mr.Jack Kennedy of Monsanto has stated "We
to penetrate the Indian Agricultural sector in a big way. MAHYCO is a good
vehicle." According to Robert Farley of Monsanto "what you are seeing is
just a consolidation of seed companies, it is really a consolidation of
entire food chain. Since water is an central to food production as seed
and without water life is not possible.

Monsanto is now trying to establish its control over water. During 1999
Monsanto plans to launch a new water business, starting with India and
Mexico since both these countries are facing water shortages.

Monsanto is seeing a new business opportunity in water because of the
emerging water crisis and the funding available to make this vital
resource available to people. As it states in its strategy paper, "first
believe that discontinuities (either major policy changes or major
breaks in resource quality or quantity) are likely, particularly in the
of water and we will be well positioned via these business to profit even
more significantly when these discontinuities occur. Second, we are
exploring the potential of non-conventional financing (NGO's, World Bank,
USDA etc.) that may lower our investment or provide local country business
building resources." Thus, the crisis of pollution and depletion of water
resources is viewed by Monsanto as a business opportunity. For
Monsanto "Sustainable Development" means the conversion of an ecological
crisis into a market of scarce resources. "The business logic of
development is that population growth and economic development will apply
increasing pressure on natural resource markets. These pressures and the
world's desire to prevent the consequences of these pressures if unabated,
will create vast economic opportunity when we look at the world through
lens of sustainability we are in a position to see current and foresee
impending resource market trends and imbalances that create market needs.
have further focussed this lens on the resource market of water and land.

These are the markets that are most relevant to us as a life sciences
company committed to delivering "food, health and hope" to the world, and
there are markets in which there are predictable sustainability challenges
and therefore opportunities to create business value." Monsanto plans to
earn revenues of $420 million and net income of $63 million by 2008 from
water business in India and Mexico. By the year 2010 about 2.5 billion
people in the world are projected to lack access to safe drinking water.
least 30% of the population in China, India, Mexico and US is expected to
face severe water stress.

By the year 2025 the supply of water in India will be 700 cubic kilometers
per year while the demand is expected to rise to 1050 units. Control over
this scarce and vital resource will of course
be a source of guaranteed profits. As John Bastin of the European Bank of
Reconstruction and Development has stated "Water is the last
infrastructure frontier for Private investors." Monsanto estimates that
providing safe water is a several billion dollar market. It is growing at
- 30% in rural communities and is estimated to be $300 million by the year
2000 in India and Mexico. This is the amount currently spent by NGO's for
water development projects and local government water supply schemes and
Monsanto hopes to tap these public finances for providing water to rural
communities and convert water supply into market. The Indian Government
spent over $ 1.2 billion between 1992-97 for various water projects whicle
the World Bank spent $900 million. Monsanto would like to divert this
money from public supply of water to establishing Monsanto's water
Since in rural areas the poor cannot pay, in Monsanto's view "Capturing a
piece of the value created for this segment will require the creation of a
non-traditional mechanism targeted at
building relationships with local government and NGO's as well as through
innovative financing mechanisms, such as microcredit.

Monsanto also plans to penetrate the Indian market for safe water by
establishing a joint venture with Eureka Forbes / TATA, which controls 70%
of the UV Technologies. To enter the water business Monsanto has acquired
equity stake in Water Health International (WHI) with an option to buy the
rest of the business. Monsanto will also buy a Japanese company which has
developed electrolysis technology. The joint venture with TATA / Eureka
Forbes is supposed to provide market access, and fabricate, distribute,
service water systems, Monsanto will leverage their brand equity in the
Indian Market. The joint venture route has been chosen so that "Monsanto
can achieve management control over local operations but not have legal
consequences due to local issues."

Another new business that Monsanto is starting in 1999 in Asia in
aquaculture. The aquaculture business will build on the foundation of
Monsanto's agricultural biotechnology and capabilities for fish feed and
fish breeding. By 2008 Monsanto expects to earn revenues of $1.6 billion
net income of $266 million from its aquaculture business. While Monsanto's
entry into aquaculture is through its Sustainable Development activity,
industrial aquaculture has been established to be highly non sustainable.
The Supreme Court of India had banned industrial shrimp farming because of
it's catastrophic consequences.

However, the government, under pressure of the aquaculture industry, is
attempting to change the laws, to undo the Supreme Court order. At the
time, attempts are being made by the World Bank to privatise water
and establish trade in water rights. These trends will suit Monsanto well
establishing its new Water Business and Aquaculture business. The World
has already offered to help. As the Monsanto strategy paper states "We are
particularly enthusiastic about the potential of partnering with the
International Finance Corporation (IFC) of the World Bank to joint venture
projects in developing markets. The IFC is eager to work with Monsanto to
commercialise sustainability opportunities and would bring both investment
capital and on the ground capabilities to our efforts."

Monsanto's Water and Aquaculture Business, like it's seed business, is
aimed at controlling vital resources necessary for survival, converting
into a market and using public finances to underwrite the investments. A
more efficient conversion of public goods into private profit would be
difficult to find. Water is however too basic for life and survival. The
right to water is the right to life. The privatisation and commodification
of water is a threat to the right to life. India has had major water
movements to conserve and share water. The Pani Panchayat and the water
conservation movement in Maharashtra and Tarun Bharat Sangh in Alwar, have
regenerated and equitably shared water as a commons. This is the only way
that everyone will have the right to water and nobody will have the right
abuse and overuse water. Water is a commons and must be managed as a
commons. It cannot be controlled and sold by a Life Sciences
Corporation that peddles in Death.


MONSANTO Family Were
Slave Dealers And Owners

Here is some interesting MONSANTO history: 

The Monsanto Family of Louisiana included  Benjamin, Isaac, Manuel,
Eleanora, Gracia and Jacob. They  made frequent purchases of Blacks
including twelve in 1785, thirteen and  then thirty-one in 1787, and eighty
in 1768. 

In 1794, Benjamin sold "Babet," a Black woman, to Franco Cardel.  Manuel
sold two Blacks from Guinea named "Polidor" and  "Lucy" to James Saunders
for $850 in silver. 

As individuals they were owners of Africans whom they named "Quetelle,"
"Valentin,"  "Baptiste," "Prince," "Princess," "Ceasar," "Dolly," "Jen,"
"Fanchonet,"  "Rozetta," "Mamy," "Sofia," and many others. Isaac repeatedly
mortgaged four  of these when in financial trouble. Benjamin Monsanto of
Natchez,  Mississippi entered into at least 6 contracts for the sale of his
slaves  which would take place after his death. Gracia bequeathed nine
Africans to  her relatives in her 1790 will, and Eleanora also held Blacks
as slaves.

Manuel Jacob Monsanto entered into at least 12 contracts for sale of slaves 
between 1787 and 1789 in Natchez and New Orleans, Louisiana.1135 "His
family  consists of himself and seven Negroes."1136 Later, "Jacob Monsanto,
son of  Isaac Rodrigues Monsanto, one of the very first known Jews to settle
in New  Orleans, owner of a several-hundred-acre plantation at Manchac, fell
in love  with his slave, Mamy or Maimi William. Their daughter Sophia, grew
up to be  a lovely quadroon." An excerpt of one of Benjamin's many slave
contracts  follows:

"Be it known to all to whom these presents shall come, that I Benjamin 
Monsanto do really and effectually sell to Henry Manadu a negro wench named 
"Judy," aged Eighteen years, native of Guinea, for the sum of four hundred 
Dollars in all the month of January in the year one thousand Seven hundred 
and ninety one; and paying interest at the rate of ten per cent for the 
remaining two hundred and fifty Dollars until paid; said negro wench being 
and remaining mortgaged until final payment shall have been made; wherewith 
I acknowledge to be fully satisfied and content, hereby renouncing the plea 
of non numerata pecunia, fraud, or others in the case Whatsoever; granting 
formal receipt for the same. For which said consideration I do hereby
resign  all right, title, possession and claim, in and to the said Slave,
all of  which I transfer and convey to the Said Purchaser and his assigns,
to be, as  his own, held and enjoyed, and when fully paid for, Sold,
exchanged, or  otherwise alienated at pleasure in virtue of these presents
granted in his  favor in token of real delivery, without other proof of
property being  required, from which he is hereby released, binding myself
to maintain the  validity of this present sale in full form and right in
favor of the  Purchaser aforesaid, and granting authority to the Justices of
his Majesty  to compel me to the performance of the same as if Judgment had
already been  given therein, renouncing all laws, rights, and privileges in
my favor  whatsoever. And I the said Henry Manadu being present, do hereby
accept this  Instrument in my favor, receiving said negro Wench as purchased
in the form  and for the consideration therein mentioned and contained,
wherewith I am  fully satisfied and content, hereby renouncing the plea of
non numerato  pecunia, fraud, or other considerations in the case
Whatsoever; granting  formal receipt for the same. Done and executed, in
testimony thereof, at the  post of Natchez, this nineteenth day of the month
of February in the year  one thousand seven hundred and ninety...."


Benjamin Monsanto, sold land and "a Dwelling House, Store, and two other 
buildings, for which I have received payment in a negro, named 'Nat;' to my 
full satisfaction." Another contract stipulated "that Don Louis Faure is 
bound to defend the said sale in case the negro shall be claimed by any 
other Person." In a 1792 contract, Benjamin mortgaged his Black slaves: "I 
do hereby specially mortgage three slaves to me belonging, namely Eugene
and  Louis, aged twenty four years each, the first named of the Senegal
nation  and the second of the Congo nation; and a Negro Woman named
Adelaide, aged  twenty eight years, also of the Congo nation; which said
slaves I warrant  free from mortgage or other incumbrance, as I have made
appear by  certificate from the Recorder of mortgages; and which said slaves
I promise  and engage shall not be sold nor otherwise alienated during the
term of this  obligation..."




The following were known dealers, owners, shippers or supporters of
the  slave trade and of the enslavement of Black African citizens in early
New  York history.


Issack Asher, Jacob Barsimson, Joseph Bueno, Solomon Myers Cohen, Jacob
Fonseca,  Aberham Franckfort, Jacob Franks, Daniel Gomez, David Gomez, Isaac
Gomez, Lewis  Gomez, Mordecai Gomez, Rebekah Gomez, Ephraim Hart, Judah
Hays, Harmon Hendricks,  Uriah Hendricks, Uriah Hyam, Abraham Isaacs, Joshua
Isaacs, Samuel Jacobs,  Benjamin S. Judah, Cary Judah, Elizabeth Judah,
Arthur Levy, Eleazar Levy, Hayman  Levy, Isaac H. Levy, Jacob Levy, Joseph
Israel Levy, Joshua Levy, Moses Levy,  Uriah Phillips Levy, Isaac R.
Marques, Moses Michaels, (E)Manuel Myers, Seixas  Nathan, Simon Nathan,
Rodrigo Pacheco, David Pardo, Isaac Pinheiro, Rachel Pinto,  Morris Jacob,
Raphall Abraham Sarzedas, Moses Seixas, Solomon Simpson, Nathan  Simson,
Simja De Torres, Benjamin Wolf, Alexander Zuntz


So what? 03.Jul.2007 22:15

Dr S Banerji drsbanerji@gmail,com

I have not understood why corporations should not formulate business opportunities out of social needs. Further, the antecedents of entities should not be held against them. Everyone should be held accountable for their deliberate actions within prospective boundaries of laws.