Go to http://youtube.com/watch?v=veIU0Jwu54w to hear a congressional advocate for the ten commandments attempt to name all ten. (He names three.)
Taken from Wikipedia...
1. "I am the LORD your God who brought you out of the land of Egypt, from the house of slavery. Thou shalt have no other gods besides Me... .."
This commandment is to believe in the existence of God and His influence on events in the world, and that the goal of the redemption from Egypt was to become His servants (Rashi). It prohibits belief in or worship of any additional deities.
2. "Do not make a sculpted image or any likeness of what is in the heavens above..."
This prohibits the construction or fashioning of "idols" in the likeness of created things (beasts, fish, birds, people) and worshipping them.
3. "Thou shalt not swear falsely by the name of the LORD..."
This commandment is to never take the name of God in a vain, pointless or insincere oath (Rashi). This includes four types of prohibited oaths: an oath affirming as true a matter one knows to be false, an oath that affirms the patently obvious, an oath denying the truth of a matter one knows to be true, and an oath to perform an act that is beyond one's capabilities.
4. "Remember [zachor] the Sabbath day and keep it holy" (the version in Deuteronomy reads shamor, "observe")
The seventh day of the week is termed Shabbat and is holy, just as God ceased creative activity during Creation. The aspect of zachor (remember) is performed by declaring the greatness of the day (kiddush), by having three festive meals and by engaging in Torah study and pleasurable activities. The aspect of shamor is performed by abstaining from the 39 melachot (forbidden categories of activity) on the Shabbat.
5. "Thou shalt honour your father and your mother..."
The obligation to honor one's parents is an obligation that one owes to God and fulfills this obligation through one's actions towards one's parents.
6. "Thou shalt not murder"
Killing an innocent human being is a capital sin.
7. "Thou shalt not commit adultery."
Adultery is defined as cohabitation with a married woman (Rashi).
8. "Thou shalt not steal."
This is not understood as stealing in the conventional sense, since theft of property is forbidden elsewhere and is not a capital offense. In this context it is to be taken as "do not kidnap" (Rashi).
9. "Thou shalt not bear false witness against your neighbor"
One must not bear false witness in a court of law or other proceeding.
10. "Thou shalt not covet your neighbor's house..."
One is forbidden to desire and plan how one may obtain that which God has given to another. Maimonides makes a distinction in codifying the laws between the instruction given here in Exodus (You shall not covet) and that given in Deuteronomy (You shall not desire), according to which one does not violate the Exodus commandment unless there is a physical action associated with the desire, even if this is legally purchasing an envied object.
According to the Medieval Sefer ha-Chinuch, the first four statements concern the relationship between God and human beings, while the second six statements concern the relationship between human beings. Rabbinic literature holds that the Ten Statements in fact contain 14 or 15 distinct instructions.