portland independent media center  
images audio video
newswire article reposts united states

faith & spirituality | human & civil rights

Rosa the revolutionary: Definitive Retrospective

When I published on DOGSPOT the day Rosa died, I didn't think of posting it to Indymedia until I actually read what seemed to be an overabundance of "Rosa Parks" stories. I was lucky get some quotes from poet Rita Dove to put Rosa's story into perspective. Enjoy.

92 Year Old Rosa Parks Passes On

by David Roknich

As she made her way through the throngs at the courthouse, a demure figure in a long-sleeved black dress with white collar and cuffs, a trim black velvet hat, gray coat and white gloves, a girl in the crowd caught sight of her and cried out, "Oh, she's so sweet. They've messed with the wrong one now!"

Poet Rita Dove on Rosa Parks

Rosa parks wasn't tired the day she refused to surrender her seat on a bus in Montgomery Alambama on that famous day in 1955: she was tired of the injustice that would require 4 black people to move so a white man could be seated. The bus driver was the same man who threatened to put Rosa off the bus 12 years previously, and he now asked 4 people to move. Rosa Parks was the only one who refused. This wasn't an entirely spontaneous decison: the NAACP was planning to challenge the law that required blacks accept discrimminatory treatment on buses, and Rosa was the secretary for their chapter in Montgomery. She and her husband had worked with the NAACP since the 30s:


"I worked on numerous cases with the NAACP," Mrs. Parks recalled, "but we did not get the publicity. There were cases of flogging, peonage, murder, and rape. We didn't seem to have too many successes. It was more a matter of trying to challenge the powers that be, and to let it be known that we did not wish to continue being second-class citizens."
Continuing from a Biography at the Academy of Achievement website:
The bus incident led to the formation of the Montgomery Improvement Association, led by the young pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The association called for a boycott of the city-owned bus company. The boycott lasted 382 days and brought Mrs. Parks, Dr. King, and their cause to the attention of the world. A Supreme Court Decision struck down the Montgomery ordinance under which Mrs. Parks had been fined, and outlawed racial segregation on public transportation.
A good outline of Rosa's lifelong quest for justice has been assembled at Wikipedia. Here are a few excerpts:
  • Parks was not the first African American to refuse to give up her seat to a white person. The NAACP accepted and litigated other cases before, such as that of Irene Morgan, ten years earlier, which resulted in a victory in the Supreme Court on Commerce Clause grounds. That victory only overturned state segregation laws as applied to actual travel in interstate commerce, such as interstate bus travel. Black leaders had begun to build a case around a 15-year-old girl's arrest for refusing to relinquish her bus seat, and Mrs. Parks had been among those who were raising money for the girl's defense. However, when they learned that the girl was pregnant, they decided that she was an unsuitable symbol for their cause. Dr. King said, "Mrs. Parks, on the other hand, was regarded as one of the finest citizens of Montgomery - not one of the finest Negro citizens - but one of the finest citizens of Montgomery."

  • The Rosa Parks case is considered the landmark because it applied to all segregationist laws, not just those affecting interstate commerce.

  • Jackie Robinson took a similar, but less-well-known, stand while an Army officer in 1944 in Fort Hood, Texas, refusing to move to the back of a bus. He was brought before a court martial, which acquitted him.

A Rosa Parks Retrospective:
compiled by DOGSPOT

homepage: homepage: http://electromagnet.us/dogspot

MAYBE even more to it 05.Nov.2005 04:50

Mike stepbystpefarm <a> mtdata.com

Social revolts are a fascinating phenomenon with it not so very clear (if you are a realist rather than an ideologue true believer) what can act as the trigger. After all, it often seems that the oppressed tolerate their oppression for a long time before exploding -- which can be a rational decision as fighting can make ones lot even worse. Then one day soemthign happens and you don't give a damn about that.

There is ONE argument that it's the destruction of a "joke". The reality of oppressive systems is that they tend to be statisticly oppressive as opposed to absolutely -- leaving the (very rare) possibility of a "joke" -- a situation where for once the oppressive rule favors the oppressed. There is a theory that the oppressors, to be safe from revolt have to tolerate this, that the "jokes" act as a safety valve of sorts. That the "ad hoc" replacement/modification of an oppressive rule so as to eliminate a "joke" risks immediate revolt << it has added a new and different sort of unfairness into the equation >>

THAT is what happened that night. Remember that the rule was that sections of the busses were (supposedly) reserved for Whites and Blacks. The rule was that, not that seating on the busses necessarily meant that Whites got to sit while Blacks stood but that the relative sizes of the reserved areas assigned meant that this would usualkly be the case. But this allowed for rare times when because the White section of the bus was full but the Black section not the rule favored the Blacks -- the "joke".

It was the ARBITRARY reassignement of the reserved areas, the "ad hoc" cancellation of the "joke" which may have acted as the trigger.