Comments on Gresham Wal-Mart Due July 6th
The City of Gresham has completed an initial review of Wal-Mart's application for a supercenter on Powell Blvd. Wal-Mart's Type II Development Application has been deemed "complete" and residents now until July 6th to submit comments to the City Planner. ANY PERSON opposed to this development may communicate in writing via electronic or regular mail during this review period.
Comments should address relevant concerns and also your intent to appeal if the application is approved. A sample letter to the City Planner is included below. In addition, a summary statement organized by Onward Oregon is provided at the end of this alert.
The local community, organized as "Gresham First," has done a great job of participating in the review process and alerting local residents about the negative aspects of this development. While the immediate neighborhoods will bear the brunt of the proposed development, the excessive traffic (and associated air quality impacts) and storm water run-off will be of regional concern. Your opinion counts and your voice should be heard. Please see the Gresham First website (www.greshamfirst.org) for additional information and ways to get involved and contribute to the efforts!
If you have concerns about this development, or pending Wal-Mart proposals in Cedar Mills (Beaverton) or SE Portland please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Senior Development Planner
Community & Economic Development
1333 NW Eastman Parkway Gresham, OR 97030
I am writing to express my concerns regarding the proposed Wal-Mart development in Gresham. As a nearby resident I am fearful of the impact that this store will have on our community. I believe that this proposal is a poor fit for the site and I intend to appeal if a development permit is approved.
Many American communities have found that the costs associated with a Wal-Mart far out weigh the benefits. I am greatly concerned about Wal-Mart's impact on local business, existing traffic problems, nearby schools, and environmental quality. Wal-Mart's history of destroying communities across America is documented by ongoing class action lawsuits over the illegal treatment of employees, inadequate health benefits and sexual discrimination. The loss of quality jobs are not balanced by those created by Wal-Mart, and tax revenues will not cover the expense of traffic control, public safety, lost property value, and social welfare. Wal-Mart's plans are a major threat to Gresham's economy, workers and natural resources and we CANNOT AFFORD these costs.
The development of a Supercenter at 182nd & Powell is directly contrary to the goals of the Community Development Plan for reasons including:
* Increased traffic in an already congested area
* Safety risks from increased traffic, with special regard to student pedestrians and emergency vehicle access
* Pollution of Johnson Creek and Fairview Creek Headwater Restoration Project
* Noise pollution caused by an increase in traffic, including semi-trucks
* Storm water & sewage impact on water quality & aquifers
* Incompatibility with adjacent wildlife habitat and residential neighborhoods
* Loss of open space, destruction of trees and impact on natural areas like historic Springwater Trail
* Expense of costly new infrastructure Impact on locally owned businesses and historic commercial centers
* Devaluation of property in surrounding neighborhoods.
As you review Wal-Mart's proposal, I thank you in advance for considering the concerns of the Gresham community. Please reject Wal-Mart's permit application and put Gresham first.
Your Name Address
Onward Oregon Summary Statement
A Wal-Mart Supercenter is coming to Gresham at the site of the abandoned QFC, at the corner of Powell Blvd and 182nd. Preliminary plans indicate that it will be approximately 200,000 sq ft. and will include a grocery store, auto service center and garden center. The company plans to demolish the now abandoned three-year-old 41,000 sq ft QFC building and enlarge the site by a factor of five, eliminating many of the remaining old growth cedars and razing one adjoining residential property that has already been purchased. The site will be excavated to accommodate an underground 1000-space two-story parking lot, which will sit under the Supercenter itself. This large facility will butt right up against Johnson Creek, an ongoing watershed restoration project, to the south. In anticipation of public relations difficulties, the retail center will sport a quaint fašade to avoid a 'big box' appearance.
The more attractive 'remake' of this Supercenter does not alter the unfortunate reality of Wal-Mart. It has a sordid record of destroying a community's economic well-being along with an impressive PR apparatus to help obscure this fact. Community leaders will no doubt be taken in by Wal-Mart's masquerade as a form of economic development and friends and neighbors may be seduced by the everyday low prices and convenience of one-stop shopping. It is essential that our neighbors and friends, the Gresham City Planner and the Gresham City Councilors know about Wal-Mart's track record and what we all can expect from a Gresham Wal-Mart Supercenter. Read on for more information or act now.
Wal-Mart has adversely affected every community in which it is located. Many of our fellow citizens wish they had been forewarned. Fortunately for Gresham, there is now abundant documentation of the so-called 'Wal-Mart effects.' They appear below.
* Negative economic impact on the region
* Replacement of higher paying retail jobs with lower paying ones
* Destruction of local business community and historic district
* Increased city costs and decreased city and county tax revenue
* Increased tax payer burden
* Aggravation of currently intolerable traffic congestion
* Pedestrian safety risk especially for school children
* Degradation of our watershed
* Parking lot and store chemicals draining into Johnson Creek
* Increased crime and police costs
* Near term abandonment of property
Read on for more information or act now.
Wal-Mart will replace higher wage jobs with lower wage jobs and require taxpayer assistance to keep Wal-Mart employees out of poverty. Wal-Mart claims it will create 400 new jobs in Gresham. Numerous studies reveal that, contrary to the company's PR, Wal-Mart does not create new jobs when it comes to town. Wal-Mart simply replaces higher paying retail jobs with lower paying ones and, due to its adverse impact upon local businesses, may actually cause a net decrease in job numbers. (1)
On its new website, (walmartfacts.com), Wal-Mart states that, in Oregon, the average associate makes $10.09/hour. This is misleading. This 'average' is inflated by failing to distinguish between management and non-management wages, between the higher grocery wages and non-grocery wages and between full- and part-time wages. One-third of Wal-Mart employees are part-time and deliberately underemployed to save Wal-Mart from paying for benefits.(2) A 2004 report from the US House of Representatives Committee on Education and the Workforce estimated the average Wal-Mart non-grocery wage (which the company refuses to disclose) as $7.50 to $8.50/hr, well below the average retail wage of $12.17.(3) This is a more accurate prediction of what the Gresham store will pay. The wages of Wal-Mart employees fall well below poverty standards, even with a 40-hour work week. (Wal-Mart's average 'full-time' associate works 34 hours). Also contrary to what Wal-Mart says, only 41 to 46 percent of its associates receive health benefits, compared to 66 percent at similar large firms. A 2003 AFL-CIO report concluded that Wal-Mart health care coverage was essentially unaffordable to Wal-Mart families due to monthly premiums, deductibles and a one-third co-pay for all services. (4) While Wal-Mart discourages its employees from using the company health plan, it encourages them to apply for public assistance, effectively shifting labor costs to the taxpayer.
The 2004 US House Report found that taxpayers subsidize the bottom line of the world's largest and most profitable corporation by picking up the tab for health care, housing assistance, food stamps, and low-income energy assistance for underpaid Wal-Mart employees. A growing number of states, including Oregon, list Wal-Mart as the number one beneficiary or among the top corporate beneficiaries of its tax-payer-supported health assistance programs. (5) Allowing Wal-Mart to shift costs onto taxpayers not only hides the true cost of the retailer's discount program, but places more responsible businesses at a competitive disadvantage. In California, Wal-Mart was found to be instructing employees on application procedures for Medicaid, food stamps and temporary assistance to needy families. This enraged California Assemblywoman Sally Lieber who stated that California was going through the "worst budget crisis . . . since the Great Depression" and couldn't afford to "keep large, wealthy corporations on the dole." (6) A 2004 Penn State University study found that it was more difficult for counties with Wal-Marts to raise their residents out of poverty than for counties without Wal-Marts.(7)
Wal-Mart likes to boast that it was voted "Most Admired Retailer" in 2004 by Fortune magazine, an honor awarded by a list of 15,000 executives, directors, and securities analysts. Wal-Mart has indeed received rave reviews from the business community for it's exceptional productivity and profitability, a result obtained from low labor costs, understaffing and public subsidies. Wal-Mart does not even make Fortune's "100 Best Companies To Work For", an honor awarded by employees not executives. Read on for more information or act now.
Wal-Mart will gut the Gresham retail business community and undermine the historic district. Wal-Mart's size and dominance of the retail market result in competitive advantages unable to be matched by local business. Even large chains like Kmart, Walgreen, Target, Fred Meyer and Toys 'R' Us lose market share to Wal-Mart.(8) A 1996 Iowa State University study of seven Iowa communities with Wal-Mart stores found that eighty-four percent of all sales at the new Wal-Marts came at the expense of existing businesses within the same county. Many of these businesses eventually failed including automotive stores, hardware stores, drug stores, apparel stores, and sporting goods stores. Historic districts and town centers were deserted. (9) This Wal-Mart effect has been widely documented in numerous towns across the US and internationally. (10) (11) (12)
In fact, eliminating the local competition is a calculated part of Wal-Mart's business model and reveals the mean-spiritedness behind Wal-Mart's community-friendly face. Testimony by former Wal-Mart managers document that Wal-Mart's rock bottom loss leader prices (on items such as cd's, toys, diapers, motor oil and laundry detergent) are set by store managers who vigilantly survey the local competition and intentionally under-price items to lure customers away from their regular shopping spots. (13) When the competition goes belly up, Wal-Mart's prices rebound, often to levels higher than that offered by the former competitor.
Using this targeted and aggressive under-pricing strategy, Wal-Mart aims to take 30% of the market share in each category in which it competes. A March 2005 survey by Retailforward, Inc., reveals that Wal-Mart has exceeded it's 30% goal in several categories and is well on its way to achieving its goal in the remainder of categories including such things as " small personal appliances, skin/haircare, housewares, small kitchen appliances, and toys." (14) Read on for more information or act now
Wal-Mart will decrease the city and county's tax revenue. Because local businesses bring in more tax revenue than do big boxes like Wal-Mart, their elimination creates problems for city and county budgets. This was expertly documented in a 2001 economic analysis for the city of Concord NH, (15). During the 1990's, Concord added 2.8 million square feet of new commercial development (primarily 'big box' retailers) but tax revenue declined by 19 percent. The shrinking tax base was attributed to the death of local businesses, and to a decline in residential property values caused by increased traffic and noise. Concord had to raise its property taxes-now one of the highest rates in the state-to make up for the lost revenue. This phenomenon has been documented in numerous towns across the US. (16) Read on for more information or act now
Wal-Mart will cost the City of Gresham $93,600 annually. A 2002 fiscal analysis of the retail community in Barnstable, Massachusetts found that big box stores drain revenue from city coffers at the rate of $ 468 /1000 sq ft. This figure includes 'big box' tax revenue less costs for road maintenance and increased public safety services. (17) At 200,000 sq ft, the Gresham Wal-Mart will cost the city $93,600 annually. In contrast, small, specialty retail stores actually generate revenue for municipalities at the rate of $326 per 1,000 square feet. At a total comparable square footage of 200,000, that's an annual revenue gain of $65,200 for the City. Several other studies document that the costs of servicing big box stores outpace tax revenue. (18) (19) Read on for more information or act now
Wal-mart will contribute $14.8 million less annually to the local economy than would local business. A 2003 economic impact analysis of an area in midcoast Maine, found that local businesses returned 44.6% of their revenues to the local economy while the big boxes returned only 14.1%, mostly in the form of payroll. (20). A 2003 economic analysis of a Chicago suburb, found that big box stores generate $105/sq ft for the local economy compared to $179/sq ft generated by local businesses. (21) At 200,000 sq feet, the Gresham Supercenter will return $14.8 million less annually to the local economy than would several local businesses with comparable total square footage. There are two reasons that Wal-Mart stores probably subtract even more money from the local economy than this calculation indicates. Wal-Mart associates receive poverty-level wages; one of the few places they can shop is Wal-Mart, thus recycling their wages back to the company. Wal-Mart's sales revenues are wired on a daily basis to its own Bank of Bentonville, Bentonville, Arkansas, owned by Jim C.Walton, son of Sam Walton, company founder. Read on for more information or act now
The Gresham Supercenter will place an intolerable traffic burden on an area that is already badly congested and heavily used by pedestrians, including many children.
Wal-Mart stores everywhere are heavily frequented by car-driving shoppers. Similar-sized Supercenters draw between 15,000 and 25,000 shoppers/day or 5,000 - 8,000 auto trips/day, most from outside the immediate area. (22) The new facility will be so tightly packed into this 11.5-acre corner formed by the intersection of Powell Blvd and 182nd that the two story 1000 space parking garage will sit underground, below the store. The primary parking accesses are along these two congested roads, just hundreds of yards from the intersection. The intersection itself is problematic; a 2001 QFC traffic study gave it a 'failing' performance rating due to it's poor left turn movement and it's over-capacity traffic volume, resulting in long delays particularly during evening rush-hour. The intersection links shopping areas with high-density residential neighborhoods and is heavily used by pedestrians. The City of Gresham plans to widen a four-mile stretch of Powell between 174th and Eastman Parkway, which will facilitate increased traffic to the Supercenter. However, the parking accesses are so close to the intersection that thousands of additional cars can only be expected to gridlock the intersection as they line up to enter the parking garage. Most of the new shopper traffic would arrive via 182nd from the north and west (via I-84, Stark and Division) and would be required to make a left turn at the intersection or proceed through it to make a left turn just south of it.
The increased shopper traffic on 182nd north of Powell will endanger the children of these high-density residential neighborhoods who walk and ride along this street and need to cross it to get to their schools. There are two schools on the west side of the street (a middle school and high school with busy athletic fields) and one on the east side of the street (an elementary school).
A smaller fraction of shoppers would be expected to come from Damascus and the rapidly expanding Pleasant Valley area to the south. They would travel north on 182nd (Highland Drive), and cross the paved Springwater Corridor multi-use trail, encountering walkers, joggers and bikers. The trail is frequently used by bike-riding families with young children, particularly on the weekend. Shopper traffic on this part of 182nd will endanger the trail-users, cause increased detouring through the Pleasant View neighborhood, and obstruct emergency vehicle movement from Firestation #3 into Gresham.
While there is a bus stop at the Powell-182nd intersection, Wal-Mart shoppers are not likely transit-users. The average Wal-Mart shopper makes 29 trips/year with an average 'spend' of $50/trip, which buys a lot of Wal-Mart items.(23) It is not likely that a Wal-Mart shopper would walk, bike or get on a bus with bags full of diapers, six packs of sodas, motor oil, baby formula and laundry detergent (Wal-Mart's 'never be beat' items-and some of the most frequently purchased). Read on for more information or act now
Wal-Mart will damage our watershed and pollute Johnson Creek. Wal-Mart's track record shows that cost-cutting overrides sensitivity to environmental concerns. Promises extracted from Wal-Mart during development negotiations rarely translate into conscientious site design and responsible construction and business practices. Wal-Mart often locates in environmentally sensitive sites, as is the case in Gresham. The Supercenter will take over the abandoned QFC site but instead of making use of the present structure, the company will demolish it, take down many of the remaining old growth cedars, and excavate the site abutting Johnson Creek, an ongoing watershed restoration project, to build a 1000-car underground parking garage and a 200,000 sq ft facility. The new facility will occupy a footprint 5 times the size of the present QFC; approximately 10 of the 11.5 acres will become impervious (non-water-absorbing).
The Supercenter is a blow to Johnson Creek. It's effects on the watershed are completely at odds with the 2001 Restoration Plan, which aims to reduce flooding, improve water quality and restore and enhance fish and wildlife habitat.(24) According to the US EPA, runoff from streets, parking lots, and rooftops, called non-point pollution, now ranks as the top source of water pollution in the US, ahead of industrial discharges. (25) New retail centers deliver the largest and most polluted volumes of run-off, primarily due to their large parking lots and destruction of pervious (water-absorbing) landscape. (26) The total runoff for a one-acre parking lot is 16 times that of a one-acre meadow. (27). Small waterways, such as flood-prone Johnson Creek, are exquisitely sensitive to impervious areas delivering large volumes of run-off which result in erosion, water temperature change (adversely affecting stream species but promoting bacterial growth), increased flooding and downstream channel widening.(28) (29) Wal-Mart will enlarge the existing impervious area by a factor of five or more. Independent watershed experts have shown that irreparable damage occurs when imperviousness reaches 10% of a watershed's area.(30) Independent experts have also shown that this degree of run-off cannot be mitigated by storm drainage systems, no matter how elaborate. (31)
Run-off from the parking decks, supercenter rooftop and garden and auto areas will also cause heavy metals, industrial chemicals including petroleum, motor oil, and other hydrocarbons, and fertilizers, pesticides and other 'garden' chemicals to flow into the creek, as has occurred at Wal-Marts across the country. The wear from car tires and break pads contributes copper, cadmium and zinc from the parking areas. (32) These pollutants threaten the public health as well as the viability of Johnson Creek's endangered native salmonid and other species. (33) Wal-Mart has been sued repeatedly in numerous states for violations of the Federal Clean Water Act. (34) Apparently, it is cheaper for the company to litigate on a case-by-case basis than to clean up its act. The Connecticut Attorney General described the violations in his state, resulting in pesticides, fertilizers, and other pollutants entering waterways and causing a "serious threat to water quality and public health," as "irresponsible and reprehensible." (35)
Wal-Mart says it will mitigate the environmental damage caused by the construction and operation of the Supercenter. The record shows, however, that, time and time again, small communities end up in court with the world's largest and wealthiest retailer chasing the promises that were made prior to construction. A responsible retailer would have chosen a different, less environmentally sensitive site or it would have chosen to make better use of the existing site.
Wal-Mart will monopolize the time and energy of municipal public safety officials. Numerous reports and lawsuits document that Wal-Mart takes inadequate measures to police it's own premises and, in its continuing effort to cut costs, shifts this burden to municipal public safety officials. In addition, Wal-Mart has a policy of pressing charges on shoplifting incidents, which requires police report-taking, investigation and booking. Numerous communities report increased police response time, decreased neighborhood presence, decreased numbers of traffic tickets issued (because the police were tied up at Wal-Mart), and increased public safety costs after Wal-Mart's arrival. Parking lot crime has been particularly troublesome for Wal-Mart. Preliminary plans for the Gresham Supercenter reveal a 1000-space two story underground parking garage, which can only be expected to compound the crime problem. When selling a new store, company officials typically understate the Wal-Mart crime effect to local officials who are ill-prepared to deal with the subsequent crime spike and blow to police budget.(36) At the recent town hall meeting Wal-Mart officials stated they would employ very bright lights to protect store premises. Read on for more information or act now
Wal-Mart is no boon to Oregon manufacturers. Wal-Mart states it brings increased business to local and regional manufacturers. However, Wal-Mart's investment in local manufacturing has declined dramatically over the last decade. Wal-Mart now commands such a large percentage of its suppliers markets that it can hold suppliers hostage to stringent cost cutting demands. Business Week reports that Wal-Mart controls "a large and rapidly increasing share of the business done by most every major U.S. consumer-products company: 28% of Dial total sales, 24% of Del Monte Food's, 23% of Clorox's, 23% of Revlon's, and on down the list." (37) Most American manufacturers are not able to meet Wal-Mart's demands and, consequently, are forced to merge, go overseas or go out of business. This was the fate of Wal-Mart suppliers Rubbermaid, Fruit of the Loom, Levi Strauss and Master Lock.. Wal-Mart was once a solid account for Rob Reed's company, Stitches, a small sewing contractor that ultimately failed. "But every season, Reed said, the retailer demanded a lower price, shrinking his profit to the point that an unexpected expense could push him into the red." (38) As the number one importer of Chinese goods, Wal-Mart is not interested in expanding its manufacturing base in Oregon. Read on for more information or act now.
Wal-Mart's Presence Decreases Property Values. The Supercenter will have multiple adverse effects on nearby neighborhoods. These range from noise pollution; light pollution; flooding due to increased run-off; increased traffic congestion, gridlock and aggressive driving; decreased driver and pedestrian safety; endangerment of our children: decreased air quality; parking lot crime; environmental and aesthetic degradation, all of which decrease the enjoyment and marketability of our neighborhoods. Read on for more information or act now.
The Gresham Wal-Mart is likely to be abandoned in the near future. Due to nationwide retail glut, the lifespan of a Wal-Mart store is shockingly short. Wal-Mart has a history of abandoning its stores, and, in fact, is the industry leader in the 'empty box syndrome.' In March of 2005, there were 356 'available' Wal-Marts on the market, located in 41 states. Thirty-one percent of these stores are larger than 100,000 sq ft. Thirty-one percent of these stores have been on the market for longer than three years. To add insult to injury, Wal-Mart has a habit of reneging on its lease obligations while it tends to hold onto the abandoned properties it owns to prevent competitors from moving in, leaving the community with angry developers or long-lasting big box eyesores. (39) Wal-Mart is a short-lived discount boondoggle that will impart long-lasting and perhaps irreparable fiscal, economic and environmental damage on Gresham. Act now.
1. "The Impact of Big Box Grocers on Southern California: Jobs, Wages and Municipal Finances," Prepared for the Orange County Business Council by Dr. Marlon Boarnet of the University of California at Irvine and Dr. Randall Crane of the University of California at Los Angeles, 1999. Available online at http://www.coalitiontlc.org/big_box_study.pdf
2. Letters to the Editor. The Nation. 2/28/05. "Wal-Mart: We Empy Our Trash," and "Featherstone Replies." Sarah Clark, Wal-Mart Spokesperson, and Liza Featherstone in response to Featherstone's 1/3/05 story, "Down and Out in Discount America." Available online at http://www.TheNation.com. See archive.
3. "Everyday Low Wages: The Hidden Price We All Pay for Wal-Mart," A Report by the Democratic Staff of the Committee on Education and Workforce, U.S. House of Representatives, February 16, 2004. Available online at http://edworkforce.house.gov/democrats/WALMARTREPORT.pdf
4. "Wal-Mart: An Example of Why Workers Remain Uninsured and Underinsured," October 2003, AFL-CIO. Available online at http://www.aflcio.org/issuespolitics/healthpolicy/upload/Wal-Mart_final.pdf.
5. Employers who Have Fifty or More Employees Using Public Health Assistance, A Report by the Executive Office of Health and Human Services, Division of Health Care Finance and Policy, Massachusetts. February 1, 2005. Available online at http://www.mass.gov/Eeohhs2/docs/dhcfp/pdf/50+_ees_ph_assist.pdf
See also "Massachusetts Spends Millions on Healthcare for Chain Store Employees," The Hometown Advantage, Reviving Locally Owned Business, February 18, 2005. Available online at http://www.newrules.org/retail/news_slug.php?slugid=285
6. "Wal-Mart's Benefits Come Under Fire," Contra Costa Times, Oct 2003, Available online at http://www.contracostatimes.com/mld/cctimes/business/7051008.htm
7. "Wal-Mart and County-Wide Poverty," Stephan Goetz and Hema Swaminathan, Penn State University, October 2004. Available online at http://www.newrules.org/retail/econimpact.html
8. "Is Wal-Mart Too Powerful?" Business Week, Oct 6, 2003. Available online at http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/03_40/b3852001_mz001.htm)
9. "What Happened When Wal-Mart Came to Town? A Report on Three Iowa Communities with a Statistical Analysis of Seven Iowa Counties,"
Thomas Muller and Elizabeth Humstone, National Trust For Historic Preservation, 1996. Summary available online at http://www.newrules.org/retail/econimpact.html
10. The Case Against Wal-Mart, Al Norman. Raphael Marketing, 2004. Chapter 5: Unfair Competition, pp 43 - 68.
11. St. Albans, Vermont State Environmental Board Act 250 Decision, 1994, Summary available online at http://www.newrules.org/retail/econimpact.html.
12. "Fiscal & Economic Impact Assessment of the Proposed Wal-Mart Development,"
Land Use Inc. and RKG Associates, 1993. Summary available online at http://www.newrules.org/retail/econimpact.html.
13. The Case Against Wal-Mart. Al Norman. Raphael Marketing, 2004. Multiple cases of predatory pricing, including lawsuits against the retail giant, are documented on pp 55-65.
14. "Most Americans Shop at Wal-Mart but not all Wal-Mart Shoppers Are Alike," Katherine R. Clarke, September, 2004. Retailforward, Inc. http://www.retailforward.com/FreeContent/PressReleases/Press94.asp
15. "Understanding the Tax Base Consequences of Local Economic Development," RKG Associates, 2001. Available online at http://www.rkg1.com/pdfs/taxbasemgmt.pdf
16. Data from The Case Against Wal-Mart, Al Norman. Raphael Marketing, 2004.
17. "Fiscal Impact Analysis of Residential and Nonresidential Land Use Prototypes,"
Tischler & Associates, July 2002. Available online at, http://amiba.net/pdf/barnstable_fiscal_impact_report.pdf
18. "Understanding the Fiscal Impacts of Land Use in Ohio," Randall Gross, Development Economics, August 2004. Available online at http://www.regionalconnections.org/UnderstandingtheFiscalImpactsofLandUseinOhio.pdf
19. "Impacts of Development on DuPage County Property Taxes,"
prepared by DuPage County Development Department for the County Regional Planning Commission, Illinois, October 1991. Summary available online at http://www.newrules.org/retail/econimpact.html
20. "The Economic Impact of Locally Owned Businesses vs. Chains: A Case Study in Midcoast Maine ,"Institute for Local Self-Reliance and Friends of Midcoast Maine, September 2003. Available online at http://www.newrules.org/retail/midcoaststudy.pdf
21. "The Andersonville Study of Retail Economics," Civic Economics, 2004. Available online at http://www.civiceconomics.com/Andersonville/.
22. Estimated from the numbers provided for a 150,000 sq ft Wal-Mart in this document. "The Full Cost of Big Box Stores," Metro Planner, Metropolitan Chapter of the American Planning Association, March 1995, Volume 7, Number 6. (Brian Ketcham Engineering, P.C., 175 Pacific Street, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11201).
23. "Wal-Mart Shopper Profiles," Times and Trends, GMA Brands. Channel Shopping Trends. Pp 8 - 12, Nov 2002. Available online at http://www.gmabrands.com/publications/gmairi/2002/November/Nov.pdf.
See also "Understanding the Wal-Mart Shopper," Homescan Client Service, ACNielsen. Available online at http://www2.acnielsen.com/pubs/2004_q1_ci_walmart.shtml.
24. Johnson Creek Restoration Plan. Johnson Creek Watershed Council. Available online at http://www.jcwc.org/
25. "Retail Sprawl Impairing Nation's Waterways," The Hometown Advantage: Reviving Locally Owned Business, September 1, 2003. Available online at http://www.newrules.org/retail/news_archive.php?browseby=slug&slugid=236
26. "Retail Sprawl Impairing Nation's Waterways," The Hometown Advantage: Reviving Locally Owned Business, September 1, 2003. Available online at http://www.newrules.org/retail/news_archive.php?browseby=slug&slugid=236
27. "The Importance of Imperviousness," Watershed ProtectionTechniques 1(3) 100-111 Available online at http://www.cwp.org/Practice/1.pdf
28. "Dynamics of urban stream channel enlargement" Technical note #115 from Watershed Protection Techniques 3(3): 729-734 Available online at http://www.cwp.org/Practice/19.pdf
29. "Effects of Urbanization on Small Streams in the Puget Sound Ecoregion," Watershed ProtectionTechniques 2(4):483-494 Available online at http://www.cwp.org/Practice/18.pdf
30. The Importance of Imperviousness," Watershed ProtectionTechniques 1(3) 100-111 Available online at http://www.cwp.org/Practice/1.pdf
31. The Importance of Imperviousness," Watershed ProtectionTechniques 1(3) 100-111 Available online at http://www.cwp.org/Practice/1.pdf
32. "Cars Are Leading Source of Metal Loads in California," Tech Note #13 from Watershed ProtectionTechniques 1(1):28. Available online at http://www.cwp.org/Practice/6.pdf )
33. Johnson Creek Restoration Plan. Johnson Creek Watershed Council. Available online at http://www.jcwc.org/
34. "EPA Hits Wal-Mart With Big Fine for Clean Water Act Violations-Again," May 5, 2004. Available online at http://www.sprawl-busters.com/search.php?readstory=1431
See also, "US Announces Major Clean Water Act Settlement with Retail Giant Wal-Mart," USDOJ Press Release, May 12, 2004. Available online at http://www.usdoj.gov/usao/de/press/2004pressreleases/walmart_complaint.pdf
See also, "US Reaches Water Pollution Settlement with Wal-Mart," USEPA Press Release, June 7, 2001. Available online at http://www.mindfully.org/Water/Wal-Mart-Pay-$1M.htm
35. "Retail Sprawl Impairing Nation's Waterways," The Hometown Advantage: Reviving Locally Owned Business, September 1, 2003. Available online at http://www.newrules.org/retail/news_archive.php?browseby=slug&slugid=236
36. The following are articles from local newspapers documenting the Wal-Mart 'crime effect': "Wal-Mart's Crime Costs Add Up," Hilltown, PA, 8/9/2004. Available online at http://www.sprawl-busters.com/search.php?readstory=1497; "Wal-Mart Described As Major Contributor to Rising Crime Rate," Vista CA, 6/4/2003. Available online at http://www.sprawl-busters.com/search.php?readstory=1197; "Wal-Mart Crime Blows Lid off Local Police Budget," West Sadsbury, PA, 9/6/2003. Available online at http://www.sprawl-busters.com/search.php?readstory=1497; "Wal-Mart Described As Major Contributor to Rising Crime Rate," Vista CA, 6/4/2003. Available online at http://www.sprawl-busters.com/search.php?readstory=1197; "Wal-Mart Crime Blows Lid off Local Police Budget," West Sadsbury, PA, 9/6/2003. Available online at link to www.sprawl-busters.com
37. "Is Wal-Mart Too Powerful?" Business Week, 10/6/03. Available online at http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/03_40/b3852001_mz001.htm
38. "Seams Start to Unravel," LA Times, part of the 2003 series, "The Wal-Mart Effect," 11/24/03. Available online at http://www.latimes.com/news/custom/showcase/la-fi-reed24nov2403,0,5725975.story.
39. "Wal-Mart has 356 Dark Stores Available for Sale or Lease," Bentonville, Arkansas, March 5, 2005. Available online at http://www.sprawl-busters.com/search.php?readstory=1757
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