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Grow Jojoba and Decommission Klamath Dams in 2006

If Klamath Valley farming collectives would grow jojoba, tepary bean and other CA drought tolerant natives, then there would be no need for maintaining the expensive dams on the Klamath River. The Klamth dams' FERC license expires in 2006, decommission dams and restore Klamath for salmon!!
Klamath River salmon need to have free passage up into the tributaries for spawning grounds. The reduction in salmon population is a result of decades of diversion dams blocking spawning grounds, raising water temps, etc. In 2006 people have the chance to save the salmon by voting to decommision the Klamath dams as their Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) license expires. Renewal of the FERC licenses would result in another fifty years of these dams suffocating the Klamath river and very possible extinction of the salmon..

The dams on the Klamath are providing irrigation water to agriculture corporations in the Klamath Valley who primarily grow water dependent crops like potatoes and alfalfa. The latter crop is for feeding cattle on nearby ranches. The high desert climate of the Klamath Valley doesn't provide many edible plants for cattle, so they require agricultural crops like alfalfa/corn/etc for survival. Other native hooved ungulates like pronghorn antelope can gain nutritional sustenance from native plants like sagebrush..

Family farmers of the Klamath Valley are a mostly myths constructed by the Bush administration. Though a few photogenic family farmers struggle to hold on, corporate agriculture is the predominant consumer of Klamath River water. Certain Klamath Valley agricultural corporations are against the dams being decommisioned because they depend on the irrigation water for their crops. The reason Bush/Norton are supporting the dams is their campaign funding comes from beef ranching corporations and not much from salmon fishing interests or indigenous peoples along the Klamath riparian corridor..

There are alternative crops that could be grown in the Klamath Valley. Jojoba is a native plant from the southwestern North American Sonoran desert that forms liquid wax similar to oil. Jojoba oil is already used in many hair and skin care products. Jojoba requires little irrigation and survives on natural winter rainfall. Frost tolerance is low, though occasional frosts in the Sonoran desert haven't caused jojoba to become extinct either. With a little TLC and greenhouse shelter, local organic farming communities could have a jojoba crop on reclaimed Klamath Valley land..

Drought tolerant CA native plant/grass list;

 http://www.elnativogrowers.com/SuitabilityLists/CaNatives_VeryDry.htm

Jojoba Liquid Wax;

 http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/proceedings1990/v1-247.html

Jojoba;

 http://www.livingdesert.org/plants/jojoba.asp

Tepary Bean is drought tolerant Sonoran desert native with at least 30 percent protein content, including iron and other minerals. Some cooking and preparation needed, an excellent sustenacne crop..

Arizona Ancient Foods;

 http://www.spmesquite.com/articles/ancientfoods.html

Tepary Bean UC Florida trial crop info;

 http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/BODY_MV025

Salmon populations would then increase in number as Klamath tributaries are opened for safe passage. The nooks found in tributaries is essential for salmon babies (fry) who need shelter and slower water current as they hatch into a new and exciting water world. The evolution of salmon requires yearly tributary access for survival, it is easier for humans to change than for salmon..

Part of the reason humans evolved as a species is our ability to adapt to new conditions and learn from our mistakes. If an agricultural method like dam irrigation requires more energy to maintain than the benefit of the outcome, than maybe we need to look for alternatives. The extinction of salmon is not worth another few years of agriculture corporate profit before increased soil salinity puts them out of business also..

From the Nile to the Tigris/Euphrates, many rivers were dammed and diverted for centuries for agricultural societies. After several decades the result was usually increased salinity from evaporation in the irrigated fields and decreased sealife in the delta/riparian corridor. Eventually crops declined and the agricultural empire collapsed or migrated elsewhere and began the same destructive process. We're running out of places to go, North America may be our last chance to learn about riparian ecology. No ancient dams were ever as severe as the modern concrete monoliths in North America and now Asia/Africa. Large hydroelectric dams are often forced into river habitats against the wishes of the local indigenous community that depend on the river's food for survival, now as for thousands of years. The short term benefit to the agricultural empire is only possible at the loss of the long term sustainability of the riparian ecosystem. This is another aspect of an imperialist culture imposing its power on native communities by usurping their river water for corporate agriculture. This act against indigenous cultural sovereignty also matches the definition of cultural genocide according to the International Court of Justice at the Hague...

International Court of Justice at the Hague;

 http://www.icj-cij.org/icjwww/icjhome.htm


International Criminal Court;

 http://www.un.org/law/icc/

Nobody desires to be branded an international war criminal yet the actions taken by the Bush regime indicate they believe they are superior to international law. The war crimes commited in Iraq (depleted uranium, cancer, bombing of civilian villages, murder of civilians, petroleum theft, torture at Abu-Graib, etc.) Afganistan (Afgani goatherders labeled "terrorists" detained and tortured for months/years in Guantanamo Cuba to gain info on CIA funded "Al-Queda"), Haiti (coup and kidnapping of popular elected Aristide, murder of Lavalas supporters, kidnapping of Yvon Neptune, etc.), are also witnessed in a slower, crueler, less visible genocide within the borders of the United States against indigenous North Americans. Land and water theft, forced relocation to reservations, mining pollution, loss of cultural food/identity, etc., are all actions initiated by corporations that are destructive to the cultural/physical survival of indigenous North Americans. These above mentioned practices are also causing ecological problems in the present and future that will impact everyone, regardless of their ethnic/cultural origin..

All residents of the United States who are able to speak out against the criminal actions of the Bush regime should feel free to do so. Remaining silent during times of genocide is a dangerous act for both self and others. By joining together across percieved cultural differences we can realize potential for true freedom and happiness without corporate government control. Indigenous people of North America may help all US immigrants learn about our forgotten cultures and indigenous ways, living closer to Madre Tierra and one another..

The Yurok, Hoopa, Karuk, and other Klamath River Tribes are asking for the support of the American people to speak out for the decommisioning of the Klamath River dams in 2006. Please comment to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commision in favor of decommissioning the Klamath River dams in 2006..

Single Chance for Salmon;

 http://www.klamathforestalliance.org/Newsarticles/newsarticle20050418.html

Klamath Basin Tribal Water Quality Work Group;

 http://www.kbtwqwg.com/index.htm
Problem 13.May.2005 12:30

xyzzy

As a former cold desert dweller who got very tired of explaining to folks back East that not all dry climates are warm all the time, I just must comment on the following:

"Frost tolerance is low, though occasional frosts in the Sonoran desert haven't caused jojoba to become extinct either. With a little TLC and greenhouse shelter, local organic farming communities could have a jojoba crop on reclaimed Klamath Valley land.. "

Here's the annual climactic statistics for Klamath Falls:  http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/cgi-bin/cliMAIN.pl?orklam

And here's Tuscon:  http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/cgi-bin/cliMAIN.pl?aztuap

Notice something? Tuscon's average LOW for January is 0.1 degrees WARMER than Klamath Falls' average HIGH for that month. K-Falls' average low for January is 21.1 degrees. That's way more than an occasional light frost we're talking about here.

Not all deserts are created equal. Cold desert is a very different beast from warm desert. Equating the two is as absurd as equating the climates of Chicago and New Orleans just because both are humid.

Jojoba just ain't gonna survive in K-Falls without a completely enclosed and heated greenhouse. Which, despite the geothermal resources of the Klamath Basin reducing heating costs to zero, is still a much more expensive way to farm than just using open fields. There's no way it'll compete economically.

Cross jojoba off your list of possible crops for that region unless you want to look like a complete fool.

Portland

not yet giving up on jojoba 17.May.2005 15:48

some ideas for seasonal thermal shelter

Yes, the Klamath desert is much colder than the Sonoran desert, this isn't forgotten..

Relocating a plant like jojoba into a new environment is not withput challenges. The shorter growing season in Klamath applies to potatoes, alfalfa and other crops that are not drought or frost tolerant. The advantage of jojoba is that it is drought tolerant. That means the only adjustment for the farmers is thermal shelter for the winter months..

Many people suggesting new ideas faced riducule and threats of looking like fools. This didn't stop people from continuing to promote their ideas, some even more ridiculous than growing jojoba in Klamath Valley..

What are some other ways that jojoba can be sheltered without extra energy from geothermal? Solar panels on greenhouses could return winter sunshine into heat, wind energy in the flat open Klamath valley could also return heat..

What happens to the potato and alfalfa fields during the cold winter? If these fields are left empty than soil moisture is lost during the dry desert cold. With the constant cover of jojoba, soil moisture would be retained..

There is another study that indicates jojba may increase frost tolerance with less water (water stress). A problem with farmed jojba is that overwatering may cause cytolysis (cell rupture) during freezing temps. Water stressed jojoba would possibly survive this event with less water present in their cells..


"Frost Tolerance and Field Management
Our research indicates that jojoba has the capacity to "supercool" to many degrees below the freezing point (Goldstein et al. 1989). The objective of the experiment was to determine if the water-balance of the plant affects its susceptibility to frost. Young leaves and buds of the jojoba plants grown under normal irrigation and water stress conditions were subjected to slow cooling in a refrigerated water bath programmed to go to -25C. The appearance of isotherms on the recorder indicated the freezing of the tissue being monitored. The tissues collected from the water-stressed plants froze at -17C, i.e., 5C below the tissues collected from the well-irrigated plants. This indicates that a mild water stress to the plant before the onset of frost may help reduce frost damage."

above quote from;

 http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/proceedings1990/v1-247.html#Frost%20Damage

Either way there are other drought tolerant plants besides jojoba that could be grown in the Klamath Valley. Another possibility is to cease growing water dependent alfalfa for cattle and allow native high desert plants to grow for grazing, then reintroduce pronghorn antelope that don't require alfalfa for sustenance..

The goal is to be more careful with Klamath water consumption and give at least one river open passage for salmon. If we allow a few well subsidized agribusiness to continue inefficient irrigation methods in a desert at the expense of the continuing survival of salmon, we are leaving the Earth less diverse for the future..

Beaver dams also store water throughout the summer and also allow passage to migratory fish like salmon into the upper tributaries. Something these bucktoothed mammals have over our concrete monoliths..

It is possible to decommision and remove the six Klamath Dams in 2006 and still provide food for people in the Klamath Valley. We need water aware small organic permacultura farms instead of inefficient agribusiness habituated to water giveaways from their political benefactors Bush/Norton..

luna moth

more info on Klamath resoration with or without jojoba;

 http://www.klamathforestalliance.org/index.html

 http://www.pelicannetwork.net/krc.htm