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A B C s of Revolution - The Clean and Simple Way (Only Way?)

A thoughtful guide to the least violent method of social change - if U cannot debate how your method is better or less violent - then how can U judge anything - Ah ha - the moderates are so afraid totalk that they - JUST DON't -
*^*The Contents of Encyclopedia of Insurgency

** In the name of God -- SAVE or Print This Before Censoring or Deleting

"WE ARE THE PREDATORS of those who preach the blasphemy of absolute sin. -- We are the Predator Militia -- We will teach your children to be Natural Born Predators, Killers-- cleaning up the planet -- one capitalist & one imperial infidel at a time."
- Al Sunna Militia, Paraguay, SA

Section I :

Section II :

Section III :

Section IV :

Section V :
Department Stores & Buildings; HOW TO SINK SHIPS
FIGURES: FIGURE VI. 7.2; Figure VI. 81; Figure VI. 82; Figure VI. 92; FIGURE VI. 11.2; FIGURE VI. 20.2; Diagram VI. 22.3; VI. 23.2 Ship Photos

Section VI :
VI. 3 : Miscellaneous weapons:
VI. 7 : How to make a simple electric igniter for use with an electric timer.
VI. 9 : Expedient Method of Cutting Spikes
VI.13 : Electromagnetic Pulse Devices

Section.VII :
VII. 1 : Radios
VII. 2 : Cellular Phones
VII. 3 : Jamming Devices

Section VIII

Section. IX :

Section. X :

Section XI.
References, Links & Websites

Command Directorate: COM I. Fall 04 Part I-III

Army of Resistance -- N.A. (ARNA)


There is no sure way to predict global events in the next 5 years. US of A Imperialism will attack Iran, Syria, Korea, Lebanon, Cuba & several other countries with increased W- Bush tyranny. Global corporations will sink their claws deeper into many regions. & oil prices will rise even as the global economy teeters on the brink of collapse. Foreign groups will likely attack many US of A facilities inside & outside of the Imperial homeland. Predicting the date at which a US of A - based domestic insurgency begins or when they escalate their strikes is subject to debate. But controlling these groups is impossible & a future of few attacks is not going to happen. Shit happens. At some point moral people will decide that they have had enough & they will kill themselves or else seek release through attacking the system.
To have a chance at success (defined as weakening the US until it accepts surrender -- a Global Compromise -- or causing the Empire to collapse, if it will not or cannot compromise) groups operating as the Army of Resistance need to form by 2005 & be up & running for several months before they initiate large scale local actions (limited non-local attacks/training exercises will commence soon). The sooner groups form, the more time they will have to prepare, learn to work together, & identify their targets, tactics & strategy ( of attack, defense & political discourse -- communiqués, demands & alliance building). The longer that groups wait to form, the more difficult it may be to acquire weapons cheaply, devices safely & financing. Once attacks begin in the US of A, by whichever faction (foreign or domestic), security threats will increase, travel will become more dangerous, & jobs may be harder to find, especially jobs in the key infiltration sectors of the: police, security, government, telecommunications & energy sectors.
Of course, there are many possible dynamics & caveats to this analysis. Millionaires may come forward suddenly as the crisis looms & the inevitability of armed struggle grows clearer; or foreign financing may become available. Also individuals or small groups may begin preparations now, so that when the time comes they can quickly unite with other small groups & become effective immediately. These actions are inferior to a more planned & measured development of the ARNA groups. There is even a possibility that earlier formation, deployment & limited attacks might serve as a deterrent to the Imperialist's plans. The ARNA strategy may also scare enough of the silent majority to take up their touted civic responsibility & come out to protest in massive numbers (20 -- 30 million with 1000s of serious injuries for years!).
A resistance movement needs cohesiveness & a clear vision of why they fight, how to fight & what they are fighting for. ARNA fights because reason & morality demand an end to US of A Imperialism & no course other than armed struggle has any chance at success -- in the short term time frame. ARNA feels that any form of direct resistance deserves support because anti-fascists cannot easily organize or discuss tactics & people will do what they feel is necessary or possible. Does what the Insurgents fight for matter when the odds of success are slim & the victory itself will shape the options available to the world? Yes & No. Insurgent anti-fascists fight for the possibility of having options, for the space to think & breathe & for a natural decentralization that allows for diversity, experimentation & respect for others' choices & cultural traditions. There is no need or likelihood of winning-over the masses in the US -- their neutrality is determined by Insurgent power & the smashing victories that will soon unfold. Enough people will join insurgent efforts or initiate their own in order to make a decisive contribution to the course of the US CIVIL WAR 2...
*** This is a global civil war ***

Anyone who has paid attention to the growing threat of Bush & the new US Imperialism is probably already formed up into affinity groups -- that's the first Baby-step. There may be millions of potential recruit. Many young people became alienated after they participated in their first anti-Iraq War protests & though the protests were large & worldwide they accomplished nothing. Even more people must be fed up with politics after seeing half the population not even vote & GW Bush win another 4 years of tyranny rights. Some of these people will drift into progressive or Green caucuses, others can be found reading sullenly at Starbucks or a pretend coffee shop alternative (& at truck stops.). Liberals & other pseudo-activists can be forced to recruit for ARNA from among these dissatisfied groups of youth & those who feel a moral pull to stop the madness of America. Pamphlets & newsletters appealing to these groups & showing them how to organize into Insurgent support or firing groups will prove effective -- especially if the moderates (liberals, New Agers) assist or remain neutral.


The highest priority & often the only priority for the Resistance is the protection & sustenance of the ARNA firing group (hereafter referred to as ARNA). These are dedicated insurgents, trained in the use of weapons, explosives devices, reconnaissance & military operations & discipline. They are usually made up of 4 to 8 members who will fight, plan & prepare on a regular basis. While not expecting to live for many months, the effectiveness & survival of these groups (& their replenishment & expansion) are the only community defense against the tyranny of the US military & Marshall Law forces -- & the greatest hope of the world for a quick end to imperialism & genocide.
Everyone else in the ARNA support group (usually just immediate family & old friends) must make whatever sacrifices (food/hunger, torture/bravery, money/poverty & death) to protect the capability & readiness of the insurgent fighters & the ARNA group's missions. Once this hierarchy of needs & discipline is recognized & embraced as a fact of life, everything else is simplified & less divisive. The support group will typically be made up of 6 to 10 people (a variety of ages from children to the elderly can take part -- though security & vulnerabilities must be balanced against the improved appearance of normality that this diversity affords). The more resources, money & preparation that an ARNA has the smaller its support group should be.
Command & Authority: In most cases the leader of an ARNA (firing group) makes all the decisions concerning the needs of the entire group (support & ARNA combined). A second in command should be designated, although in the event of multiple mortalities or loss of contact with the total group, the members may decide to pick a new leader. If the group is large ( 6 to 9 fighters) & the support group is large ( more than 7 people) or engaged in complex activities, then the leader will have to delegate responsibilities & command authority to individuals as appropriate. As time & circumstances allow, everyone from the group should be encouraged to speak out & make recommendations. Important concerns -- especially if supported by a sizeable minority -- should be thoroughly discussed. After a period of transition & adaptation, most groups find roles that suit each member & internal conflicts are rare & manageable.

SECRECY -- Even in neighborhoods that are insurgent strongholds, the ARNA -- Resistance groups & most of their support groups should maintain a reasonable level of security & secrecy. Infiltration by government agents, non-aligned militia & independent mercenaries (who will seek to sell information to the government) will be severe dangers in the US where loyalty & honor are foreign concepts & greed/egos rule. Secrecy requires that only a few members of a group know the identity, location or plans of other groups. Usually only the group leader will have much information on other groups & the overall plan -- at least in the early stages of the insurgency.
No one should talk about actions, members or even their political views to anyone who is not highly trusted (eligible recruits & financiers). Groups must go about their everyday lives as if nothing has changed -- even after hostilities begin. Strive to fit in with your neighbors & co-workers -- though you may need to withdraw to some degree (& gradually) from relatives & ex-friends. Be friendly & helpful in your community, but also be quiet, reserved & as normal looking & acting as possible. Report all of your relevant contacts & observations to the ARNA.
I.3 THE MENTAL -- PHYSICAL & MORAL-MORALE - Every member is a spy who constantly listens & watches for changes in the community & changes in the behavior of people (new or old) whom they live or work around. Competent observation & information sharing (with some directed follow-up by the group) can often unmask government infiltrators or an imminent attack by the authorities or non-aligned groups. This insurgency will be a serious game of survival & deceptions. ARNA must practice & attack, & yet they must also remain effective units until they can have a large impact.

I.4 ARNA & SUPPORT SECURITY - Choose Your Friends Wisely -

We need to stress the importance of choosing your "friends" wisely. Even cell members can turn into informers when the heat is on & fear has taken over their reasoning. Don't work with individuals who are involved in other criminal activity, especially if it is violent in nature -- unless they prove themselves by following orders & focusing only on ARNA priorities. Don't work with people who are not committed to the cause. When the stakes are high -- as it is with any insurgency -- trust your gut. If you are uncomfortable with a potential cell member -- don't work with them. Don't allow trusted friends to "vouch" for others. You should have first hand experience working with every cell member before approaching the subject of Direct Action with him or her. Oftentimes friends are blinded to their friend's quirks, which might point to the fact that s/he is not suited for this activity. Try to imagine potential cell-mates -- & yourself --after they are caught & are being interrogated: How would they respond? Would the fear cause them to break? Could they handle the pressure of jail time ?
Once a person finds people they think are of a high enough caliber to work with, next you want to: Make sure every one of them is familiar with police interrogation techniques & procedures so they can spot the lies of the authorities should they be apprehended. Make sure they are ready to go to jail for 10 years, if the worst happens. All cell-mates should be able to discuss what would be the hardest thing for them to cope with should that happen -- i.e. supporting children or non-human family members, pressure from parents to capitulate, fear of being beaten in jail or whatever. Finally, even though it sounds strange, the cell should partake in some sort of ritual where everyone promises to other cell members to never talk to anyone (friends, lovers, cops, etc) about the action, & that all information will never leave the confines of the active cell. This sort of "blood sibling" type ritual might be the one thing that helps weaker people through a hard spot after an arrest. It is important that all participants in an action know what's expected from them. ** See also:


Ideally a couple millionaires (or 10 people with $240,000 each) would finance a well-organized (but secret -- even to the financiers) militia of firing groups (ARNA), warehouses & supply networks.
II.2 A One Year Budget Scenario -- ASSUMPTIONS - Each ARNA along with its (now smaller budget -- due to external financing) support group earns money from jobs in order to act as a cover or for infiltration & future thefts, sabotage & intelligence gathering. Therefore they will not need full support externally & instead will have an approximate deficit of $2000 per month. Thus $2.4 million would finance 100 groups for one year -- or more realistically ( & more effectively) $2.4 million would fund 40 well-armed & well-stocked ARNA for several years ( extra weapons, devices, warehouses, reliable communications, range finders, spotting scopes, food stocks & ammunition supplies). Considering that within a year about half the groups would be decimated or below operational status, the remaining groups could be funded substantially longer than 2 years -- if victory is not quickly achieved. Live - Die -- regroup -- Fight ON!
Summary -- Conclusions -- You may not care about these guidelines -- But if you care about victory against tyranny & a speedy end to the Western global genocides, then you will consider these statements & be sure that any deviations your group chooses to follow are due to logical improvements or adaptations to the strategic situation -- & NOT DUE TO YOUR EGOS & other Western habituations.
Vehicles -- The fewer the better & low cost is usually important - though you may at times decide on a white car, sedan or a van that fits in & looks medium income or classy. In many regions -- if possible -- a warehouse or a house with a garage is valuable for weapons production & -- or hiding stolen cars to be used in attacks or car bombings. Preferably, not too many groups nor too great an amount of resources will be allocated to this. Extreme caution is required to keep activities at a warehouse secret. Running it as a service or paint & body shop might be necessary to cover your other activities -- maybe antique car or furniture restoration?
In many cases there will be fewer people able or interested in joining an ARNA than a support group. In this case the whole group (as directed by the leader) must take responsibility to work hard to recruit from within or without. They should strive to build a stronger support group ( more work, more contributions or better housing, security & weapons) which may also thus attract competent or dedicated combat members. They can also improve their rap for recruiting & their internal rap & cohesion.

II.3 EXPENSES & FUNDING: Physical Requirements:
Food; Housing; Security; Weapons

Small groups (of less than 10 people) with few resources may have to make do with very small apartments. They will have to maximize space, ration privacy & minimize their activities & visibility in order to not draw attention or suspicion to themselves ( perhaps some members could work nights & some could stay away from the apartment during the day, doing recons & observations around town). They still need to secure a safe house to accommodate the ARNA when attacks go awry or in the event that the primary house is raided or a security problem develops. In the early stages of conflict the location of the house is not important (other than the convenience & reduced cost of the house being near employment) In these early stages, the group should try to do attacks (training & to accent demands) far away from their house/hood (20 - 300 miles). In later stages of conflict, travel may be difficult & the house should be nearer to the primary targets or accessible by bicycles or stolen vehicles. Bigger groups or those with resources should acquire several houses ahead of time with a few maintained very discreetly or hardly used until needed by the group or by other groups.
A balance must be struck between allocating funds for basic necessities: food, housing, vehicles & weapons; & allocating some funds for pleasure & entertainment. A good leader recognizes this & takes council & the needs & the morale of the whole group into consideration. A typical living scenario is 5 members of an ARNA with an 8 member support group. The whole group would live in two small houses or apartments with a third safe house apartment kept secure & unconnected. Here is a monthly budget based on prices & wages in the southern US (more expensive areas should hold (proportionately) to this estimate in most circumstances, since wages are higher there too).
The following scenarios assume no outside funding:

Scenario Budget I (smallest group, 13 members total).

Costs/Earnings per month.
2 members of a 5 member ARNA have part time jobs ($8 per hour) -- $1280
3 members of the 8-person support group have full time jobs ($8 per hour)- $5200
EXPENSES: Rents 3 (one bedroom apt.) 3 x 500 ----------------------------- $1500
Utilities & miscellaneous household supplies---------------------------- ---- $ 300
Food for 13 people -------- --------------------------------------- $1300
Vehicles (I car, I van or truck, 6 bicycles --------------------------------------- $ 600
Misc. medical, books & personal ------ --------------------------------------- $ 600
TOTAL ---- $ 4300

Scenario I leaves $900 per month for weapons & entertainment

Scenario Budget II ( medium group, 17 members )
Costs/Earnings per month.
3 members of a 7 member firing group have part time jobs ($10 per hour)- $ 2400
4 of the 10 member support group have full time jobs ( $10 per hour) --- $6400
TOTAL --- $ 8800
EXPENSES: Rents (One 2or 3 bedroom & two 1 bedroom apts.) ---- $ 1800
Utilities & misc. Household supplies ----- --------------------------------$ 400
Food (17 people) ----------- ------------------------------- $ 1700
Vehicles (A good car, a truck, bicycles & a motorcycle) ---------------- $ 700
Misc. Medical, books & personal ---- --------------------$ 900
TOTAL ---- $ 5500

Scenario II leaves $ 3300 for weapons & entertainment per month. Similar results are found if there are 6 part time jobs & 3 fulltime.

In the case of Scenario I, the small group only has $900 leftover after basic expenses each month. Almost all of this would have to be spent on weapons in the first year, which is about as long the group will have to commence actions. Hopefully, the more high paid individuals or groups in a community will join in the insurgency & share resources, money & weapons.

II.4 : FUNDING INSURGENCY -- Kidnaps & Extortion

How to get money without taking all the time, life & prison for nothing. Or how to get ransom deliveries: mail 2 packages to 3 different cities or Fed X, UPS &/or pay smaller couriers to pick up the ransom & move it around until it can be snatched (by another hired gang/person). Can hire a kid (Who hires him/her?) or others to pick up & then follow your (changing) directions (partly through pay phone calls or a cell phone provided to the courier). Maybe do the transfer or the courier leg to Mexico or Puerto Rico. In the second round of diversions & switches mail the ransom to Nogales & throw it over the fence (or Tijuana, El Paso & other border scenes). Heavy traffic & short-cuts through alleys can easily avoid detection once the tracking device is switched out to another similar looking package/briefcase or destroyed.
Or pay a kid (youth) courier to take it across the border while you observe him. Across the border you do more diversions & tricks. Use snatch & grab techniques or a clever switcheroo during transit changes (tunnels, bridges) or in traffic as the vehicle passes over a man-hole cover (or a trap door in a garbage can). Lead-lined bags or boxes are used to block the transmit signals. Frequency detection devices & switching around the ransom into multiple similar briefcases are all good deception & confusion techniques.
Deliver money at a neutral place -- a large sports event, a rock concert, a foreign border, in the dark or underground. Also have insurgent cameras across the street watching for delivery activity: web cams; WiFi; vans with one-way side mirrors & binoculars or large lens camera. Insurgents know the destinations of the driver & the locations of the money switches - & the driver only has the directions at a few steps in the process/route -- a hidden cell phone is supplied -- and/or the lead bag. At some point you switch to A bicycle or a motorcycle courier. Bike goes into a crowded place -- or the agent walks the bike through buildings & plazas to confuse & to disrupt tracking signal & visual observations in order to create cover for a switch of the money or the removal of the transmitter or to substitute a new transmitter. & then there is trick of a total disappearance of the bag, money & transmitter in a short time period (hours) -- by car, plane or boat or all 3 - get it out of there & out of range of the transmitter & police is the objective. The trip to the bathroom trick can work where the money goes out the window & many more deceptions & subterfuges follow quickly.
(Additional ideas on ransom & extortion deliveries are solicited)
SEE:  link to www.kimsoft.com

More discussion on funding: bank robberies, kidnapping, extortion (like done to Colombian oil investors) & raiding weapons suppliers will be added soon. This chapter has only presented a few examples of how small & medium sized cells can fund their activities. The drug trade & coalitions with various criminal gangs are other options.

From War in the Woods: "It's been bedlam on the West Coast as ecoterrorist firebugs slithered out from underneath their darkened rocks & lit up the Western skies. From logging equipment to luxury homes to university buildings to tree farms, anything involved with the use of natural resources has become fair game for the arsonists. In the 'name of saving the environment,' these criminals have caused fire damage exceeding $12 million in a short period of time. In Western states alone, at least 100 major acts of arson, bombings & sabotage occurred from 1980 through September 1999. The total damage adds up to $42.5 million. That number increased by 28 percent through May 2001 to more than $55 million--just in the West."
- "If we are vandals, so were those who destroyed forever the gas chambers of Buchenwald or Auschwitz." May 14, 2001: ELF's North American spokesman, Craig Rosebraugh (Now WWW.ARISSA.org)

The only positive development in the world is the increase in hatred of all things of the US of A imperialists & of all things Western. Soon billions will start to hate all Americans who are not resisting the Empire's crimes. Americans will not be able to travel anywhere safely & US of A business will withdraw from everywhere or be destroyed by Insurgents or spontaneously by the populace. Global Insurgents will provoke the US of A into more attacks on civilians & defenseless countries. They can attack minority groups inside or outside of the US of A in order to increase social tensions, create factions & spin the news so that the US of A is always blamed for everything: For starting the violence (Palestine, Vietnam, Iraq...) & for creating a global economic structure that naturally incites resistance to slavery & degradation.
The strategies employed in Iraq & Afghanistan are instructive for any insurgency. See also links to the IRA & Manuals of Latin American insurgents. Kidnappings, assassinations & car bomb threats (as in Iraq 2003-2005) maybe used by North American Insurgents in a pattern designed to keep the government off-balance & humiliated. A wide variety of targets & victims are chosen & this makes it very difficult for the government to investigate them. Such a group may also create variety & style, sometimes kidnapping a group, a bishop or a Rabbi & then releasing them.
Main Issue or Weakness of Government is Confidence - So water, electricity & food are key targets. The strategy is to attack the least loyal areas that had the most important resources (power plants, dams, military bases, or mines). These regions, states & locales are chosen ahead of time by several central committees. Teams (5-18 troops & specialists) are sent to the primary targets. Their signal for initiation of assaults is either pre-planned diversions that the groups are aware of or able to witness (see, hear or read news of other primary actions having occurred). If neither occurs by a certain date or time then the teams are authorized to proceed at will. Fall back rendezvous & resupply points are designated ahead of time. Secondary & tertiary targets are also chosen for Phase TWO or in case of impossibilities at the primary targets.  http://www.iwpr.net/index.pl?archive/cau/cau_200404_227_4_eng.txt
Urban Cooperation Strategy: We recommend that privately -- among the leadership of all insurgent groups - that they recognize that they have common goals -- the victory of crushing the NOW (New World Order). They must also recognize their own weaknesses: Public Relations expertise & the inherent negativity toward violence by the general public & finally, the problem of too few recruits. They must recognize that multiple strategies & diverse tactics are necessary. Some will be nice & some very ugly. Publicly they can attack each other at times -- with some reserve -- but they must not fight each other directly. The main lesson in all things & experiences is how to factor the lessons of an experience into your method of understanding. If you think a problem through & go out & do some field research -- personal observations -- then you will learn the hands-on experiences by combining the learned with the real life security issues & concerns. Question your thought processes & find blank spots -- holes -- in your learning & acting methods. Run the problem through a few different criteria: 1. maximum damage, 2. maximum survival, 3. maximum media impact, minimum costs, etc. Do not be afraid to try brainstorming new approaches, methods, tactics & weapons. Study what currently divides people & groups in a target area & seek to widen these differences.

. III.2 : A Review of Military History:
John Keegan is a Military Historian from Britain (wrote Book called The faces of Battle, 1976).
What will make people fight.
1. Drunkenness. 2. Political leaders who inspire the soldiers.
3. Personal Bond between leader & followers. 4. Personal Bond between individual & the military.
5. War enforced as official religion (Jihad, religious obligation, against heathens/infidels).
6. Provision of legal, morale, & military justifications. 7. Troops have the opportunity for personal enrichment.
8. Social & peer pressure & cohesion.
9. It's not difficult to convince people to fight, you just show them that they live in a violent society. It is said that solders do not fight for a cause. They fight after they form a bond with their comrades & then they want to come though for their fellow man. Thus, Armies began to train troops together to build these bonds.
James McPherson -- Reasons that the South fought the North (Union) in US Civil War
1. Southern nationalism
2. Self government
3. Defense of home
4. Vengeance
McPherson: Why the union fought
1. Patriotism
3. Anger
4. They thought the south was primitive
5. The Emancipation Proclamation
Sun Tzu
1. A military leader should avoid war
2. Deception is a key element of all operations & of strategy.
3. Guerilla war
4. Do not let innocent people die or be abused
5. Long-term war
6. War is an arm of the political & diplomatic practice.
Karl Von Clausewitz -- believed that war should be fought relentlessly.
War should be bloody violent & lethal.
1. The purpose of the military is to serve the political system & its goals.
2. Objective- we must fight an enemy we can beat.
3. Simplicity- the war tactic & strategies must be simple.
4. Unity in Command- All commanders must agree.
5. Offensive - the Commanders must take advantage of every weakness of the enemy.
6. Mask - the fighting force must be able to move in large forms.
7. Economy of Force- make your force look bigger. Use small units to fight often.
8. Maneuver the Enemy- put the enemy in a location that puts him at a disadvantage.
9. Surprise - fight the enemy when he is not ready.

III.3 : Counter Insurgency & Security Issues : Disrupting the activities of Insurgents is often a key component of government security policies. If Insurgents are permitted to determine the pace of their operations -- if they & not the government have the initiative -- it is difficult to suppress them because by choosing the time & place to strike, the insurgents can minimize the chances of tactical failure. Conversely, if government forces can keep the insurgents off-balance, many of the insurgents' efforts will be diverted from planning & conducting offensive operations to trying simply to survive & avoid capture. People & groups under pressure for extended periods operate less effectively: they make more mistakes & they may find it more difficult to cooperate & to maintain organizational coherence. Counterinsurgency forces can exploit these openings.
Examples are: Disrupt communications & databases. No large organization can operate effectively without them.  http://www.command-post.org/nk/2_archives/012766.html

III.4 : General OUTLINE Of Operations :
Factors That Influence Insurgent Groups' Capabilities:
Ideology; Command & Control: Structures & flexibility; Auto-responses & autonomy; Leadership; Weapons; Recruitment pools; Operational space; Publicity Training; Intelligence; Technical expertise & specialists; External weapon sources; Sanctuary; Money; & Deception skills.
The 4 organizational tools are:
A guiding & motivating ideology, Leadership, Recruitment pools, & Publicity.
In addition to these organizational tools, we expect that the operational tools used by insurgent groups to sustain a series of successful attacks are as follows: command & control, weapons, training, operational space, operational security, intelligence & money.

Operational Security -- In addition to operational space, insurgents work to maintain operational security. This security is distinct from command & control or operational space because it incorporates the ability of groups to keep government security forces from discovering the plans & people involved in a particular attack. Insurgents expend considerable resources to protect the integrity of their operations. The R-IRA uses its cell-like structure to maintain operational security, with individual members associated with local cells that operate relatively independently. Those in individual cells are not always aware of others' plans, reducing the potential for informers or infiltrators to disrupt any given attack. Although this structure has proven to be useful, an attack against one or more of the cells can halt the momentum of a group's campaign. Hamas currently faces this problem with regard to the intensive crackdown by Israeli authorities on bomb makers & midlevel leaders since 2000. In response, Hamas leaders have reportedly designated multiple teams for each operation: If Israeli authorities kill or arrest members of "Team A," another cell steps in & takes over without any instructions from higher command levels (which could potentially be discovered in transmission). This structure allows 2 cells to know the plans for a particular operation, making it more vulnerable to informants & infiltrators, but it also allows Hamas as a group to continue its attacks at a more consistent rate.

III.5 : Principles of Resistance Organization -- The historical & linguistic origins of the political term "terror" prove that it cannot be applied to a revolutionary war of liberation. . . . The revolution itself is not terror, & terror is not the revolution. A revolution, or a revolutionary war, does not aim at installing fear. Its object is to overthrow a regime & to set up a new regime in its place. In a revolutionary war both sides use force. Tyranny is armed. Otherwise it would be liquidated overnight. Fighters for freedom must arm, otherwise they would be crushed overnight. Certainly the use of force also awakens fear. Tyrannous rulers begin to fear for their positions, or their lives or both. & consequently they try to sow fear among those they rule. But the installing of fear is not an aim in itself. The sole aim on the one side is the overthrow of armed tyranny; on the other side it is the perpetuation of tyranny. -- The Revolt, Chapter VI, Army of the Underground.  http://users.mo-net.com/mlindste/resistcl.html
Urban guerrillas must be organized into small groups.

A team of 4 to 9 is called a firing group. A minimum of 2 firing groups, separated & insulated from other firing groups, directed & coordinated by one or two persons, this is what makes a firing team. Within the firing group, there must be complete confidence among the members. The best shot, & the one who knows best how to handle the submachine gun, is the person in charge of operations. The firing group plans & executes urban guerrilla actions, obtains & stores weapons, & studies & corrects its own tactics. When there are tasks planned by the strategic command, these tasks take preference. But there is no such thing as a firing group without its own initiative.
Except for the priority of the objectives set by the strategic command, any firing group can decide to raid a bank, to kidnap or execute an agent of the dictatorship, a figure identified with the reaction, or a foreign spy, & can carry out any type of propaganda or war of nerves against the enemy, without the need to consult with the general command. No firing group can remain inactive waiting for orders from above. Its obligation is to act. Any single urban guerrilla who wants to establish a firing group & begin action can do so, & thus becomes a part of the organization. This method of action eliminates the need for knowing who is carrying out which actions, since there is free initiative & the only important point is to greatly increase the volume of urban guerrilla activity in order to wear out the government & force it onto the defensive.

Conventional logistics can be expressed with the formula FFEA: F--food F--fuel E--equipment A--ammunition. Conventional logistics refer to the maintenance problems for an army or a regular armed force, transported in vehicles, with fixed bases & supply lines. Urban guerrillas, on the contrary, are not an army but small armed groups, intentionally fragmented. They have neither vehicles nor rear areas. Their supply lines are precarious & insufficient, & they have no fixed bases except in the rudimentary sense of a weapons factory within a house. While the goal of conventional logistics is to supply the war needs of the "gorillas" who are used to repress rural & urban rebellion, urban guerrilla logistics aim at sustaining operations & tactics which have nothing in common with conventional warfare & are directed against the government & foreign domination of the country. For the urban guerrilla, who starts from nothing & who has no support at the beginning, logistics are expressed by the formula MMWAE, which is: M--mechanization M--money W--weapons A--ammunition E--explosives Revolutionary logistics takes mechanization as one of its bases. Nevertheless, mechanization is inseparable from the driver. The urban guerrilla driver is as important as the urban guerrilla machine gunner. Without either, the machines do not work, & the automobile, as well as the submachine gun becomes a dead thing. An experienced driver is not made in one day, & apprenticeship must begin early. Every good urban guerrilla must be a driver. As to the vehicles, the urban guerrilla must expropriate what he needs.
When he already has resources, the urban guerrilla can combine the expropriation of vehicles with his other methods of acquisition. Money, weapons, ammunition, explosives & automobiles must be expropriated. The urban guerrilla must rob banks & armories, & seize explosives & ammunition wherever he finds them. None of these operations is carried out for just one purpose. Even when the raid is to obtain money, the weapons that the guards carry must be taken as well. Expropriation is the first step in organizing our logistics, which itself assumes an armed & permanently mobile character. The second step is to reinforce & expand logistics, resorting to ambushes & traps in which the enemy is surprised & his weapons, ammunition, vehicles & other resources are captured. Once he has weapons, ammunition & explosives, one of the most serious logistics problems facing the urban guerrilla is a hiding place in which to leave the material, & appropriate means of transporting it & assembling it where it is needed. This has to be accomplished even when the enemy is alerted & has the roads blocked. The knowledge that the guerrilla possesses of the terrain, & the devices he uses or is capable of using, such as scouts specially prepared & recruited for this mission, are the basic elements in solving the eternal logistics problems faced by the guerrillas.


Desertion & the diversion of weapons are actions carried out in military bases, ships, military hospitals, etc. The urban guerrilla soldier or officer must desert at the most opportune moment with modern weapons & ammunition, to hand them over to the guerrillas. One of the most opportune moments is when the urban guerrilla soldier is called upon to pursue his guerrilla comrades outside the military base. Instead of following the orders of the "gorillas", the military urban guerrilla must join the ranks of the revolutionaries by handing over the weapons & ammunition he carries, or the military vehicle he operates. The advantage of this method is that the rebels receive weapons & ammunition from the army, navy, air force, military police, civilian guard or the police without any great work, since it reaches their hands by government transportation.
Other opportunities may occur in the barracks, & the military deserter must always be alert to this. In case of carelessness on the part of commanders or in other favorable conditions--such as bureaucratic attitudes or the relaxation of discipline on the part of lieutenants or other internal personnel--the deserter must no longer wait but must try to inform the guerrillas & desert with as large a supply of weapons as possible.
When there is no possibility of deserting with weapons & ammunition, the Insurgent sympathizer engages in sabotage, starting fires & explosions in munitions dumps. This technique of deserting with weapons & of raiding & sabotaging the military centers is a way to wear out & demoralize the enemy & leave them confused. The urban guerrilla's purpose in disarming an individual enemy is to capture weapons. These weapons are usually in the hands of sentinels or others whose task is guard duty. The capture of weapons may be accomplished by violent means or by cleverness & tricks or traps. When the enemy is disarmed, he must be searched for weapons other than those already taken from him. If we are careless, he can use the weapons that were not seized to shoot the urban guerrilla. When we carry out small operations or actions to seize weapons & ammunition, the materiel captured may be for personal use or for armaments & supplies for the firing teams.
The necessity to provide firepower for the urban guerrillas is so great that, in order to take off from the zero point, we often have to purchase one weapon, divert or capture a single gun. The basic point is to begin, & to begin with a spirit of decisiveness & boldness. The possession of a single submachine gun multiplies our forces. In a bank assault, we must be careful to seize the weapons of the bank guard. The rest of the weapons will be found with the treasurer, the bank tellers or the manager, & must also be seized. Often, we succeed in capturing weapons in police stations, as a result of raids. The capture of weapons, ammunition & explosives is the urban guerrilla's goal in assaulting commercial businesses, industries & quarries.

III. 8 : Examples of Anti-Imperialist & Terroristic Operations
Peru Embassy takeover, Tupac Amaru group (MRTA).
9-11: WTC ; 9- 11: Pentagon (2001).
1st WTC car bombing in garage. (Islamicists).
UN Headquarters in Baghdad 2003 -- killing Sergio Viera by Abu Farida Masri.
German Bieder-Meinhoff gang -- Prison attack -- nightclubs -- US military .
San Diego ELF Fires (2003-2004).
M-19 Guerrilla theft of the Sword of Bolivar & the Supreme Court takeover.
Pablo Escobar's parked dynamite trucks -- cars -- Tricks.
Achille Lauro ship highjacking -- Palestinian Insurgents.
Suicide Boat Bombers in Yemen, USS Cole: Naval ship attack.
Aldo Moro -- Italian Red Brigades kidnapping.
Munich -- Israeli athletes kidnapped.
20,000 FARC & ELN kidnappings.
Entebbe plane high jacking.
Beirut US barracks bombing.
Near-miss bombing of Margaret Thatcher: Brighton, UK. (IRA)
Saudi hotel rampage -- 2004 (al Qaeda).
Near-miss shoulder fired rocket attack on Israeli airliner, Nairobi, Kenya. (al Qaeda affiliates)
Beheadings (everywhere).
M19 Colombia tunneling into an armory to steal 4000 rifles.
Boat attack on Iraqi oil terminals (2004). (Iraqi Insurgents)
Assassination by Taliban covert ops of The Northern Alliance leader & icon Commander Masood (Tajik), September 10, 2001.(Using fake news cameramen).
US Embassy Bombings Kenya & Tanzania. (al Qaeda)
Assassination attempts on Perez Mushareff. (Pakistani Taliban supporters)
Simultaneous Airliner Bombings in Russia by Chechens 2004.
French Oil Tanker attack off coast of Yemen (al Qaeda).
(Read Chapter VIII : Energy & Insurgent Options.).

III. 9 : Issues, Ideas, Campaigns & Various Likely Targets
1. Money disbursement to the public or the Insurgents (as demands)
2. Phone card disbursement to the public or the poor - call grandma for free.
3. Targeting -- important individuals & families (blackmail, extortion) -- driving
him/her & other regime supporters insane.
4. Kidnaps (quick release or ?)
5. Museum attacks (& steal their idols)
6. Hospital attacks by a different group than main insurgency (like a youth strike brigade)
7. Car bombs -- with or without the driver's awareness of the bomb or the target. Also fake car bombs.
8. Dramatic acts -- & then a wild trick to get away. Create mystery & bravado.
9. Embarrass government or the rich -- in every way.
10. Extort & exhort to the ultra-right elements or their base. Deals with the enemy alliances -- drug dealers or whatever has to be done to get weapons & supplies.
11. Large Ambush --of/by a group -- ( fill in the blank ).
12. Attacks on chemical plants or on oil tankers to cause massive pollution -- eco-terror could be a US weakness.
13. LA Air traffic control in Palmdale; Albuquerque Air traffic control ; Southern Cal. Terminal Radar Approach Control (some of these work on different frequencies).
14. Oil Refineries -- TX, LA & Caribbean ??
15. Tactical Attacks -- Pumping stations for oil & water pipelines.
16. Disneyland & Disney World / Amusement Parks.
17. Bill Gates Seattle mansion.
18. Hollywood studios & mansions.
19. Tunnels & overpasses.
20. SOCOM Headquarters in Florida
21. 1st Special Forces Group, Ft. Lewis, Washington
22. Camp Perry, Virginia (The Farm) Special Forces Training Center.
23. Roosevelt Rods Naval base, Puerto Rico.
24. Urban warfare MOUT simulator at Fort Polk, Louisiana.
25. College Sororities
26. Ft. Buchanan, Puerto Rico; US SOCOM Army HQ

III.10 : Typical Tactics of Urban Guerillas & Practice of 4th Generation Warfare (4GW)
The urban insurgent works alone or in small cells to:
a. Disrupt industry & public services by strikes & sabotage.
b. Generate widespread disturbances designed to stress the resources of the opposing force.
c. Create incidents or massing of crowds to lure the opposition force into a trap.
d. Provoke the opposing force into overreacting, which would provide hostile propaganda.
e. Provoke inter-factional strife.
f. Sniper attacks at roadblocks, outposts, sentries, & individuals.
g. Attack vehicles, buildings (downtown areas) & airports with rockets & mortars.
h. Planting explosive devices, either against specific targets or at random, to cause confusion & destruction, & to lower public morale.
i. Ambushing patrols & firing on helicopters.

III.11 : Tactical/Technical Considerations in Urban & 4th Generation Warfare:
Problems of the Government Forces:
* Rigorous communication' security is essential, even against relatively primitive enemies.
* Night operations are especially difficult to carry out in an urban environment.
* Tanks & armored personnel carriers cannot operate in cities without extensive dismounted infantry support.
* Trained snipers are cost effective, but likely to be in short supply.
* If patrolling is central to the strategy of the security forces, it will be different from conventional combat patrolling & must be well coordinated.
* Fratricide is a serious problem when fighting in cities because it is harder to identify friend from foe.
* Major civilian structures in cities (e.g., hospitals, churches, banks, embassies) are cited in such a way as to be tactically useful locations, command key intersections, &/or are built of especially solid construction. Such facilities are especially useful to Insurgent defenders.
* Use of hospitals as staging areas & for the storage of weapons & WMD protection equipment.
* Direct-fire artillery & anti-aircraft artillery can be a valuable tool in urban combat, provided one does not care about collateral damage. Unfortunately, "collateral damage" will be used in Insurgent propaganda
* Small unit leadership, especially at the junior non-commissioned officer level, is critical to tactical success in urban operations.
* Recovering damaged armored vehicles is more difficult in urban areas.
* Intelligence, especially from human sources, is critical to successful urban operations.
* Hit - &- run ambushes by small groups are a favorite tactic of urban paramilitary forces.
* Tracked vehicles are preferable to wheeled vehicles in situations where there is likely to be large amounts of rubble in the streets. Otherwise wheeled armored vehicles are faster & preferable.
* Helicopters have extreme difficulties operating in an urban combat environment (See Black Hawk Down, Somalia), but are useful in redeploying forces & supplies to just behind the forward edge of operations (Where they are still vulnerable to 50 caliber snipers.)

A second strategy likely to be deployed by insurgents inside the US of A is less confrontational & instead focuses on attacks on energy sector targets. This strategy will occur along with attack strategies of the above mentioned full-on terror war. There is no one way that people will fight, any strategy has to expect a diversity of tactics -- from beheadings to eco-catastrophe dirty bombs -- & also to expect unusual & devious tactics from the government, the rich & their allies.
If people in the US of A actually want to stop the insanity of their government then they will have to act quickly to destroy it & seize power. Otherwise foreign agents will bring the US down with ruthless & environmentally destructive techniques: nuclear bombs, attacks on US nuclear power plants, nuclear waste storage & with dirty uranium/cobalt bombs. Attacks on electrical power transformer substations can quickly, quietly & cleanly shut down the US of A & its endless fake educational media. In-between the repairs made by the desperate government, guerrilla Insurgents can broadcast messages or demand air time to speak directly with the people. Should be interesting cuddling up with blankets & the short wave -- battery powered radios.
Study electric power & pipeline grids for key industry connections & key expensive sites (inter-ties & large transformers) - with a mind to avoid excessive ecological harm (at first until demands are not met!) Always look for weakness in structures, morale, designs, unprotected areas, people, towns, & facilities - anything of value. Use truck bombs on substations & horizontal mortars -- Guerrillas, would establish a command & a political front - a parallel political force - like soviets (councils of soldiers & workers). Cuban lessons are instructive for: looks (strength projection), education, as balancing checks & to promote women.
THINK: back & forth all of the time & whenever new information or developments come in. What are the weaknesses & strengths of them & you - which of yours can be improved or covered - long & short term & the same for theirs. Which can be exploited or further weakened & how will this affect new strategies & tactics.
During storms & disturbances you can sabotage power plants & electric systems safely & they won't know what is wrong when they start it up. They won't know that you are attacking because the power & the feedback information loops won't be working. Storms are also a good time to mess with other stuff: towers, water works & to break windows in high rise buildings or anywhere where water wants to be. Think up more on crime, guns, car jackings, kidnaps, surprises & road attacks.

1. Where are the most expensive & hard to replace targets ? ( The system inter-ties where grids connect from one region to another) The major transformer Substations & the largest power plants. 2. When is the best time to cause power outages (In the summer in hot places, in the Winter in Cold places, during holidays & following other attacks). 3. What should be targeted after the initial attacks when the government increases security? (Distribution networks, pipelines, communications centers & anything with standoff weapons)

III.: 13 The Ultimate STRATEGY - If you have a nuclear weapon use it to take out the Greenland or Antarctic ice shelves. -- raise the sea level by 8-28 feet & -- bye-bye capitalism- imperialism- technology! -- have a global poll on what to bomb- ! (see Chapter VIII. On the Empire's Energy Sector Vulnerability.)

Urban War & Imperialist responses: Snipers, Fire Control systems (them & us), SOF & special ops, weapons, devices & new advances; The US sociology of fear; List of Targets & Discussion; Media & Social Psychology; Hospitals & School Bombings: From Baghdad to Beslan to New Jersey? ; Recycling bin attacks/burnings; Trucks & Facilities; US of A Strike forces & their operational tactics & strategies; Drones - UAVs; Stryker Troop Carriers - uses & weaknesses or strengths; Secure Communications for Insurgents: relays or multi layered & coordinate switching of the two systems (hardware & codes). Also 2 sets of codes are switched each month or rotate back.
More Research Considerations: Planning & role assignment within the ARNA (groups) for: weapons, Tech Issues, Communications; $$; safe houses (escapes), Media Rap -- communiqués -- stashes -- coercion -- hits -- confidence -- or fear. Analysis of the strange world of targeting issues -- what is the object -- what are secondary effects -- people, SUVs or offshore oil -- types of devices from nails to small timers to large stand off weapons. Communications companies, research, technology & get a job! -- Overall strategy -- strategic targeting & tactics More on how to fit in -- jobs as covers for living, espionage & internal/inside sabotage campaigns.
Store fronts to launder money & rip off creditors or gun shops (to order lots of guns & ammo & then skip out with all of the bought-on-credit merchandise. Churches: which to aid, which to extort from & which to bomb. Relevant examples from other countries & IRAQ. Iraq in September 2004 -- 30 days, 2,368 attacks (NYT Sept 29, p A 10)

Communication is dangerous. In writing to us, do not use your real name or put a return address on your missive. We do not need to know who you are. After taking the information from your letter, we will burn both the letter & the envelope. Similarly, no record will be kept of orders for copies of the Encyclopedia of Insurgency in case a group of "plumbers" decides to take a midnight stroll through our filing cabinet. By the way, 2 good friends, Mr. Smith & Mrs. Wesson are our security agents.

SECTION IV. Secret, Revolutionary Sabotage Cell Formation :

The ARNA strategy is to keep terror & rhetoric moderate in the US of A until the election is over. Then watch out -- as Bush would tell you too, for he has quite a few plans for 2005. Insurgents will help Iraq collapse more & trick Bush into more wars with his -- newfound popularity. Then the US draft will be inevitable & many soldiers will quit or go AWOL, come home & join the insurgency -- join a militia or cause trouble !! Sounds like Civ War II .

With this lull before the civil war 2, now is the time to be prepared for the upcoming campaign when the fighting begins anew. As a result of the lessons which had to be learned, now is the time to build New Model Resistance organizations (cells) able to quickly concentrate sufficient force at a point of attack so that the target is always eliminated, but diffuse enough so that the enemy has no idea as to their existence, much less their exact presence.

In Revolutionary struggle against tyrannical government, certain phases are in order. First there are discontented people, eventually coalescing into a Revolutionary officer corps. Then sides are taken. At first the ruling regime has a monopoly on the power & lacking intelligence enough to ameliorate grievances creates a number of martyrs, such as happened at Falluja, Ruby Ridge & Waco. The regime cracks down on the opposition, as is happening now. The surviving opposition goes under-ground, & gets organized for a civil war ahead. We are right now at this point. The fighters & leaders have already chosen themselves. Soon an open shooting war shall just happen with an escalation towards total civil warfare. This article is a primer for those neutrals who lack natural Resistance leadership, or leadership in the stage of development. Every guerrilla war fought in modern times has used the methods & cell formation strategy outlined here.

IV.2 : Two Types of Cells -- Two Cellular Functions

The basic building block of the Resistance is the cell. Strong cells = Strong Resistance. Weak or dysfunctional cells = No Resistance. Therefore, of great importance to the Resistance is forming these cells, with an eye towards cell security & survival. Once cells have formed & are a going concern, then interaction & communication between cells can be addressed.
There are 2 types of Resistance cells -- those based upon ties of family & those based upon ideology. Since these cells are different in their make-up, they may have different missions & purposes. A family cell based upon ties of blood or marriage is predominantly a defensive cell, with a strategy of survival in a harsh world. If the family cell has young children in it, there will be concerns over proper (or safe) indoctrination & the exposure of the children to violence. Family cells will be reluctant to engage in risky behavior, which if detected, could end up with the death of the father & the poverty of the wife & the children. Since the unmasking of one family member could brand the rest of the family as unreliable by the government, this is a second reason why family cells will seldom engage in overt aggressive warfare against the government. That is until the insurgency grows & the point of victory is glimpsed. Then all hands will take up the gun to support ARNA or their own home-turf champions.
Family cells should not be treated as second-class by the Resistance. Such tightly knit cells, especially if they extend beyond the nuclear family to extended kinfolk, are invaluable for recruiting & for concealment. As a majority of the cells within the Resistance, they can bear the burden of diffuse blows when a vengeful regime is searching for the ideological cells. Since every society is based upon a family structure, no regime dares fully exterminate even the most suspect family because it alienates every family in the society -- loyal or rebel. A society which destroys its best families is taking the final step towards the extinction which began when it lost the allegiance of those family units.
With their will to survive & defensive attitude, the family Resistance cell is usually located in the middle stratum of society. Since they see the future & are preparing for it by prudently laying in stock quantities of food, ammunition & medicine, such a family cell can furnish both food, shelter & concealment for extended periods to an element of an ideological cell, which might well arise from within its family cell. Such family cells are the backbone of the Resistance, because they not only provide the muscle, but because they can act as eyes & ears for the Resistance. Also, it is the family cells which provide reinforcements & shelter for the ideological strike cells. With their respectability they can be invaluable in providing safehouses & support for the strike cells.
Example: The Smith family has seen the coming conflagration for the past 10 years. Therefore they have formed a rural "commune" on their farm several miles outside a small town. On that farm is housed their grandfather & grandmother & one of the brothers. This brother leases available farmland & grazes cattle on the 20-acre farmstead. In the event of social conflict, it is understood that that extended members of the family will return from their jobs in the local cities & towns to the farm, where a stockpile of weapons, ammunition & stored grain await. This extended family doesn't advertise its beliefs aloud. It makes small political donations & supports the local charities & churches. The farming brother is even an honorary deputy sheriff. The family are respected members of the community. The grandfather has made overtures & sounded out his friends & neighbors about what is going to happen come the collapse. He set in motion an "unofficial" unspoken neighborhood watch which the local authorities know nothing about. From such families of quality comes the nucleus & cadre of the Resistance.
IV.3 : Ideological Strike Cells. It is the ideological cells which are the fighting forces of the Resistance. Such cells are composed of from 2 to 5 individuals, working to common purpose to destroy the regime. The individuals will usually be men without children to support, men without any ties to bind each other except a hatred of the current social order & a need to impose the raw justice of revenge. Such cells are capable of doing anything, such is their alienation from the hated society & the lack of any links which would tend to hold them morally responsible for their conduct.
Paradoxically, the smaller the cell, the less its vestigial links of command & control to other

Resistance cells, the more dangerous such a rogue cell is both the regime & other elements of the Resistance. Such a rogue cell might go beyond blowing up police stations or assassinating regime politicians to poisoning a city water supply or unleashing biological warfare. While such results should be justly laid at the door of the corrupt regime with its armies of informants driving such cells beyond even the control of the Resistance, still, such cells should have some linkages to the Resistance. If the destruction is not confined upon the unjust & mediocre elements of society, any renewal of civil society under the leadership of the Resistance might be difficult.
Such an ideological cell escapes destruction for as long as it remains undetected. -- Consider the Unabomber with his cell of one. Intelligent & deeply committed, he would still be striking his enemies if he hadn't developed a taste for writing long-winded leftist tracts & his brother hadn't turned him in. So an ideological resistance cell should be able to strike down its enemies & shouldn't be detected provided it practices good internal security so that it draws no attention to itself, & chooses to prey upon society's predators, avoiding harm to innocent bystanders. As the society continues to decay & a crescendo of random violence escalates beyond the ability of the criminal elites to control, the opportunities to strike shall increase & the cell can more easily escape detection in the war zone that is current Amerika.
Once a cell is detected, it can be easily destroyed. The regime will use all of its considerable assets to hunt down & then destroy that cell. So the most successful cell is one which the enemy does not know exists at all. Once a cell has done something that the current regime knows is uncommon, then half the cell's security is gone. But with the civic unrest which is to come, these incidents will be dismissed as the natural white noise generated by barbarism if given enough time between their occurrences.
Example: The brother operating the farm is good friends of other neighborhood families, the Jones's & the Williams's. This Smith has known these people all his life, gone to school & to church with them. The Jones & Williams families are part of the unofficial neighborhood watch program. But now one of the Jones's has lost his farm as a result of a fraudulent IRS assessment. A local bank buys it at a sheriff's sale, & uses the local corrupt state courts to prevent it from being redeemed. A number of local lawyers, the Sheriff, & a state judge are in on the racket as well. It is decided by the Smith brother & his friends the Williams's & another one of the Jones's that the time has come to retaliate against the banker, sheriff, & one or two of the lawyers who have built large houses out in the country, the proceeds of corrupt dealings in real estate & drug trade.

IV. 4 : Operations of an Ideological Strike Cell -- A strike cell is formed of 1 to 5 individuals working together by consensus. Some might form from out of the family cells on an ad hoc basis, but usually the tasks of a strike cell will mean that the cell membership will be on a permanent basis. By natural arrangement a leader will be chosen, but it will not be a despotic leadership but rather one of ability for the task at hand. Once a task has been chosen by means of planning, usually it will be implemented without much, if any, hitch. The power & destructive capability of a cell striking at will should not be underestimated. Entire cities could be poisoned or placed under biological warfare attack. Power stations or relays attacked. Bridges & tunnels destroyed. Members of the regime or their families won't be able to live in rural, inner-city, or any areas absent sufficient security or fortification. In many cases, the fear & hatred produced can make any area ungovernable.
Example: One cloudy night, the sheriff & his family receive the Smith brother, the two Williams's & one Jones brother who remains outside. After the telephone line is cut, the sheriff & his family are quickly killed & the place set on fire. Any cash is removed & the house is left a wreck in order to make it look like a burglary. The banker & his family receive a similar fate, after the banker is tortured to reveal his partners in the criminal ring. It is too late that night to visit the judge & lawyers. Their turns will come when the heat dies down. Meanwhile, the wronged Jones brother is in a public place surrounded by neutral witnesses. After several days, the local newspapers receive anonymous communiqués that the sheriff & banker were in on a drug ring & such are the consequences of cheating on a drug deal. The public quietly thinks that they might have been done a favor. The Jones brother is one of the pallbearers at the crooked sheriff & his family's funeral.

IV.5 : The Political Front -- In revolution it is necessary to have a political front acting as the mouthpiece of an Action Force. The Revolutionary Strike Cells are the Action Forces. The Political Front works independently of the Action Force, preparing propaganda to justify everything the Action Force does & to demonize corrupt regimes. The Political Front seizes the moral high ground & counter-attacks against any lies propagated by the criminal regime. Action Forces of the Resistance are patriots striking fear into the quisling collaborationist fascist swine of the regime. A Political Front cell never has anything good to say about the evil regime or its minions.
The Political Front member is good at communications & politically aware. His job is to set the common man against the parasitic regime which is destroying the foundations of civil society. So every chance he pens letters to the editor, sets up WWW Internet pages & e-mail trees to send out his message, runs for political office & files lawsuits against the regime for its violations of its own pretend legislation. If good with oral communications he gets a shortwave radio show or becomes a traveling lecturer before patriotic audiences. He feeds the flock, sets the majority at odds with the criminal regime, & lays down a steady stream of verbal assault on the criminal regime & its servants of evil.
The Political Front's job, in addition to attacking the regime includes informing the downtrodden & disenfranchised that there are solutions, which have the common beginning of first exterminating the current regime & its members. As such, the Political Front is creating more Resistance Shock troops & sympathizers all the time. Previous successful Political Fronts which successfully interacted with their Resistance Action Forces are the Sein Fein acting with the Irish Republican Army & the Irgun working with the Likud in post-WWII British Palestine.
The Political Front establishes a wall between it & the Action Forces. It cannot know, officially about the activities of the Action Forces. Known members of the Political Front are always under observation by the criminal regime, therefore open propaganda on common knowledge are all that is broadcast by the Political Front propagandist regarding the Action Forces. It is essential that because of the regime's scrutiny that the Political Front propagandist not have any illegal weapons or any weapons other than those owned by ordinary members of the rural majority, that he not use drugs, be sexually promiscuous or a debtor. A Political Front member must be a paragon of morality, since he is attacking the criminal regime's & their minions' morality all the time. If a Political Front member is arrested, the middle majority must always smell a police setup & suspect that the ruler criminals have ordered the frame-up. Violation of this principle has been the cause justifying many a patriot arrest.
Summary: Resistance Organizations are spontaneously set up in the case of a aggrieved patriot or patriots setting or are the results of slow, patient careful recruiting over a period of years by the aware & alarmed, especially in the case of family & Action Force cells. Some Resistance organizations have existed for several decades. Some are being formed today as more & more people wake up to the impending collapse of civilization caused by the criminal element ruling at the top. Planning the membership of your Resistance organization & its objectives is best deliberately done in advance as opposed to setting one up under pressure when it may be far too late.

Section V : INSURGENT OPERATIONS & Strategic Planning
(Summary of Topics Covered):
Strategic Planning: Experts in the US Sociology of Fear; TYPICAL DEMANDS; Escalation to Chaos: Escalation Theory & Reverse Escalation; Regional or Mobile Security; Choosing Targets; PLUGGING ROAD & HIGHWAY CULVERTS; PLUGGING WASTEWATER DISCHARGE PIPES & INDUSTRIAL WATER INTAKE PIPES; Hydro Plant Flood Gates; ROADS & TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS; SPIKING & NAILING ROADS: Where to Place Road Spikes; NAILBOARDS; Wood Bridges; Closing Urban Roads & Chaos on the Highways; STEEL BRIDGES; URBAN ATTACKS; Attacks on Corporate Offices; ASSASSINATIONS; CONFERENCE ROOM TECHNIQUE OF

FIGURES: FIGURE V. 7.2; Figure V. 81; Figure V. 82; Figure V. 92; FIGURE V. 11.2; FIGURE V. 20.2; Diagram V. 22.3; V. 23.2 Ship Photos


VI. 1: Strategic Planning: Insurgents should find: experts in the US Sociology of Fear; List of Key Targets & a Discussion of Media/revolutionary propaganda & the Social Psychology of US Collapse. Insurgents must go into the Public battle-grounds of the media's PR Global Media Spin battles. Write letters to militia & gangs & claim their support. Revolt in order to Stop Global war: a war the US of A will lose. The Rich don't value redneck values -- religious values - heartland values -- or any values -- they just use you.

Links: IRA --  http://irelandsown.net/guerrilla3.html
Brazil Mini-Manual of Guerrilla Warfare --  link to www.marxists.org

TYPICAL DEMANDS: no outdoor lights -- no streetlights -- no choppers -- no undercover police or spies Close all stores on Sundays & after dark. A different group could demand: We will Shoot One American everyday that IRAQ is occupied & one everyday that US troops are based anywhere in the Gulf Region. Germans are targets because of Afghanistan & NATO training of Iraqi police. Italy-UK-Poland are big targets -- Hungary & the Netherlands agreed to pull troops out by March 2005 & may begin to do so sooner.

Examples of Typical North American Insurgent DEMANDS: Ransom transfers; Phone Cards (for Grandma calls); food distribution centers; resolutions condemning imperialism & US militarism; no helicopters flights (they are key easy targets & ripe for the plucking threats (perfect for extortion). Could draw a chopper into an action (crime scene) with lots of snipers & 50 cal rifles on the surrounding roofs (& use steel or other nets or flack mortars).

Another take on demands: Conditions for Negotiation & Dialog
A). The US armed forces disband or desert; B.) All federal employees are military targets so quit your jobs; C.) All people or businesses earning more than $100,000 per year will pay %10 of income (above what they already pay) to the local governments wherever they own a home, business, building or land. The Insurgence Tax; D.) Release of all prisoners jailed for drugs or non-violent crimes. Payment of $1000 to each prisoner that released form prison/jail for any reason.
These Community Taxes will fund:
1. Free & unlimited 24 hour soup & sandwich feeding centers. Centers will be distributed in poor neighborhoods with one center per 1000 people below the poverty line.
2. Free public transportation & an increase of 10% rider capacity each year.
3. Free weatherization & safety improvements for all homeowners over 50 years old who live below the poverty line.
4. Free & unlimited availability for drug treatment & mental health support.

Rules of Engagement
State governments can continue to administer basic services until constituent assemblies are convened;
A. Non-Federal Law Enforcement will not normally be attacked except in self-defense as long as they attempt to remain functionally neutral.
B. Civilian casualties will be minimized. Commercial enterprises which pay their full Community Taxes & which refrain from direct collaboration with Federal agents & known rightwing security forces will not usually be targeted.
C. Private Security forces, mercenaries of oppression, & non-public or non-uniformed but armed individuals are targets.
D. No elections will be held or legitimate until local/regional constituent assemblies have re-drawn constitutions, charters & programs. Polling stations & all election officials & participants are targeted.
Communities & regions which meet these demands & show trust will be considered Transitional Autonomous Zones where combat is restrained. Until then, we wish you change.
Obviously you want war -- You have been making it for a very long time.

IRAQ Situation: Reason Iraqi Insurgents fight:
a. Lessons learned from Iran-Iraq War.
b. Anger at USA for supporting Israel.
c. Anger at USA for supporting Saddam & then tricking him into invading Kuwait in 1991.
d. Betrayal of Shias by Bush senior, 1992-93.
e. Sanctions against Saddam that killed 100,000s of average people & led to Iraqi radicalization.
f. USA oil greed & USA disrespect for Islam & traditions.
g. The brutality of US bombings (1991-2005) & the mass detentions of innocent people & the abuse of prisoners at Abu Gharib & other USA torture centers.
h. Reparations that the USA forces Iraq to pay to Kuwait (more than 2 billion in the last 2 years)
i. The intentional slaughter of 1000s of civilians by US Marines in Falluja & Ramadi.

Iraq in September 2004 -- 30 days, 2,368 attacks (NYT Sept 29, p A 10)
332 attacks in the far west, 283 in the NW, 83 in the E. Central, 325 in Falluja area, 23 in E central, 997 in Baghdad region, 76 in Najaf, 87 in Basra.

Attack Types: 39 Grenade attacks; 272 RPG attacks; 664 mortar or rocket attacks, 40 car bombs, 327 small arms attacks, 27 land mines & 799 homemade bombs.

An excerpt of Craig Rosenbrauhg's ideas: How far is the anti-war movement in the US willing to go to stop the U.S. government & its unceasing atrocities? How far are you willing to go, what are you willing to do to stop the massive bloodshed once again caused by the U.S. government? The only possibility of stopping US military operatons is to engage in strategies which severely disrupt the war machine, the U.S. economy, & the overall functioning of U.S. society particularly how it relates to consumerism & the economy. A new strategy must begin with our allegiance to come to terms with the realization that any & all tactics & strategies must be considered at least available for use.
1) Attack the financial centers of the country. Using covert or black block techniques. Physically shut down financial centers which assist the functioning of U.S. economy. This can be done in a variety of ways from massive property destruction to online sabotage.
2) Large scale urban rioting should be focused on governmental agencies & corporations - especially those that profit from the war or the destruction of life.
3) Attack the media centers of the country. Corporate media continues to influence & control the minds of the mass of people in the US. These media outlets cannot be utilized by the movement as they are owned by the very corporations one should be opposing. Using any means necessary, shut down the national media networks , permanently if possible.
4) Spread the battle to the individuals responsible for the war & destruction of life, the heads of government & U.S. corporations. No longer should these people be able to hide behind their occupations, living their lives in peace while they simultaneously slaughter countless people. Hit them in their personal lives, visit their homes, & make them feel personally responsible for committing massive atrocities.
5) Create an atmosphere lacking of support to assist U.S. troops at home & abroad in losing their morale & will to fight.
6) Actively target U.S. military establishments within the US. Use any means necessary to slow down the functioning of the military.
7) Strike hard & fast & retreat in anonymity. Select another location, strike again hard & fast & retreat in anonymity. Engage only in actions where you will be victorious. Do not be concerned with alienating the mainstream sectors of the movement.. Stay alert, keep active, & keep fighting.
Or read about how to build arson bombs at:  http://www.earthliberationfront.com/main.shtml
A repost of Craig's ideas & a lengthy debate are found at :

A THOUSAND POINTS OF LIGHT (FIRES!): BEACONS FOR REBELLION! Anti-Imperialist suggestions from Anti-Capitalist Front:
Total resistance - beat the system - red paint equals beat back worldwide.
The strike-free.org website has the following warnings: There exist an eventuality that terroristic groups will buy foodstuffs (convenience foods, soups, snacks, cereals, beer, lemonades), pharmaceutical products (vitamin mineral & vital nutrients), cosmetics (lipsticks, face creams) & sanitary products (toothpastes, mouth irrigations, shampoos) made by US & affiliated groups & contaminate them with HIV-viruses, SARS-viruses & recirculate in supermarkets. Consider the safety instructions at all petrol stations because you may rest assured that assaults by incendiary compounds will happen. Keep a stiff upper lip, get some exercise, go out at night & do your own clandestine reconnasaince - to see how easy it is for terrorists or freedom fighters to sneak around & plan attacks!

VI. 2 : Key overall guiding principles: 3 Types of attacks:
(I.) Serious strategic attacks: Take out key people (the elite class of bankers & defense contractors), enemies (military & political), leaders (& their families) or major infrastructure: Power Plants; Key Transformers & substations; Chemical Plants; Oil Facilities; Oil & Gas Storage, Gas lines, Bridges (Golden Gate & New York area), Dams (Hoover & Bonneville Project), Aqueducts--Pumping Stations (California & CAP), Railroads, oil & LNG export & import terminals, docks, airport control towers, navigation beacons, aircraft, port facilities, & attacks on helicopter staging centers or production facilities for choppers, aircraft or other weapons, & always -- the government buildings!

(II.) Tactical strikes -- to acquire weapons, money, fame, or takeout limited equipment -- a plane -- a chopper -- a communication facility. Foreign corporations & foreign tourists are likely targets.

(III.) Symbolic Strikes -- Sword of Bolivar -- Statue of Liberty -- Governors' Mansion -- Disney World - Steal the US Declaration of Independence or the US Constitution & burn them (State Constitutions too!) -- fake car bombs or smoke attacks to create panic but no major deaths.

VI. 3 : Unfolding Scenarios of Battle & Retreat:

Typical Urban Guerrilla Attack Plan: TARGET -- is a large gun shop or dealer
1. Reconnaissance of Security at site: where are the supplies that you want located -- the right gun powders, weapon models, etc
2. Recon the nearest police stations, substations & queuing areas: coffee shops & hangouts
3. Observe security & employee shift changes, & traffic changes by shoppers or commuters at or near the place of the primary target (gun shop or armory).
4. Recon the electric distribution system of the area - also electricity supply transformers (if near), if they are big or it is the right time of year (summer or winter extremes) Where are key power lines; gas lines; water system components?
5. Escape plan route; stash places; breakdown contingencies & re-supply options.
6. Fall back contingencies; injuries; hot pursuit & other possible complications.

Battle Plan: Large fires or car bombs are set near a rich part of town away from a targeted gun shop. Attacks on fire department & police stations are made to look like they are large scale attacks in that part of town. Then that attack group falls back to cover & to keep out enemy forces -- say to the north. Meanwhile, the gun shop is hit & power lines/substations are taken out all over. Attack communication towers or use jamming systems. Then the roads or police stations are taken out as the group retreats quickly with the stash. Take out some of the local police or military helicopters before the raid & prepare to shoot others down at the time of the raid & the retreat (dusk?). Break down part of the shipment quickly into smaller trucks or cars & go in different directions. Set more fires elsewhere (or time them to go off at the estimated time) & return the snipers to their attacks on fire department & police. Litter the roadways with nails, caltrops or small car bombs (or smoky fires) for maximum chaos but minor deaths. Get away & send those communiqués. Celebrate the precious arms that have been liberated!

A smaller & continuous harassment would be to rob individual or teams of police randomly at different areas, times & ways!! Get some money, cars, radios, weapons, uniforms & some priceless fun...

If you are being pursued by an enemy column, always kill the lead man (the Point man). This will unnerve the enemy & make the point position difficult to fill. This tactic will sometimes divide the enemy against one another, as some men may refuse to take a position that is going to result in their deaths.

Operational strategy for crime & targeting: Have people on bicycles & other vehicles cruising around with cell phones & pagers looking for targets like expensive cars, rich people, lone police officers/armed guards & anything of value (plus easy opportunities like drug dealers & cars or trucks left running). Then once contacted 2 attack squads converge according to a coded message (like the numbers 11 or 444). The codes indicate the type of target & the type of attack squads (vans or heavily armed) that are needed. These scouts also record the movements of security forces, the times & routes of armored cars & of wealthy people. If well coordinated this information could also serve attacks on larger regional targets & diversions for same.

When planning multi attacks or coordinated attacks study how the leaders or designated agents contact others & request a certain kind of diversion on a certain date/time /region. They do not need specifics about the primary action only any details that assure they are not in the way & accomplish the secondary or diversion action (s). The follow up directions could come if necessary within a certain period -- 10-20 hours before hit -- or it could be more organic too: like cells know only the date within 2 days & the second or main group waits for that diversion to happen.

Tactics Miscellaneous:
Part I - Planned diversions can create pandemonium to protect the units engaged in actions or retreats. Like, send out scout teams to set booby traps & fires to attract attention away from retreating units or away from an ongoing action -- or into a trap. Randomness is also vital in the long or medium run as in: don't use the same diversion tactics or plan in the same situation against the same enemy commander -- or do use again (now & again) but add new twists & dirty tricks!

Stage Two Operations: Weapons, Money, Explosives: The Strategic Symbolism of Strength.
Do a big fire or a flood into a area where the military or the rich live (police) then car bombs at key intersections, bridges, underpasses or at the crowded shopping centers created form an earlier diversion or broken down cars routing traffic into the newly congested areas -- gas stations too. A second idea is to take out a bridge or a key highway overpasses ( using tanker trucks or explosives ) -- then target alternate transportation routes & trains, busses or airports.

Bank hits -- You burn the bank & create lots of smoke & chaos -- car mini-bombs nearby before & after the hit -- or a whole fake attack away from the bank to set it up- also works when presidents or other big events happen (cop funerals etc) & this draws security away & de-prioritizes banks etc.

For armored car robberies (or destruction) or for SWAT vehicles (Tanks?) stick on a device with magnets or glue that zaps the electronics (grounds it too with a big copper cable & or a pipe). This would take out the phones, alarms & possibly the vehicle motor's computer, disabling the vehicle & probably destroying its communication & alarm systems. With enough voltage the device cold kill or render the occupants unconscious. It's possible that the armored car system has a negative status alarm in that non-receipt of signals alerts the headquarters of a problem. The problem of opening the doors would still exist.

Several medium-sized mines placed along a highway or near a bridge or steep drop-offs (or?) can accentuate demands & be used in a variety of places to confuse & humiliate the government. When the key is to monitor traffic & try & wait for a military officer or a rich person (or both) & then feint a big attack on the officer, the bridge or a nearby troop garrison. This draws a response while your real target is powerlines in the other direction or cars & banks elsewhere. Also works for attracting choppers to an ambush canyon.

VI. 4 : Escalation to Chaos: Escalation Theory & Reverse Escalation
Typically insurgents escalate their attacks to higher value targets & more shocking missions. In some cases it may be necessary to reverse this & strike the hardest & largest targets first. This strategy allows the most damage early on before security tightens. Once escalation grows the government can expect increasingly bloody attacks.

Find gas stations near something valuable, downtown, airport, mansions. Wait for tanker to come to it. Rob the store, remove the truck driver, evict the employees, turn on all the gas pumps, disable the emergency gas shut off switch (usually outside near the door), breach the tank on the truck, slash the truck tires, cut the truck battery cables. Then run like hell leaving two short fused timers behind (one hidden or remote control).

Gasoline tanker trucks can be stolen & either the gas is sold or the truck is hidden in a warehouse (well ventilated) or under tarps outside. Many of these trucks have a GPS monitor (transmitter) that allows the owner to track the vehicle. Disable this unless you are going to use the truck in an action immediately.

How to think about operations -Look - Think - Consider; then re-look - rethink - reconsider - each time with more factors and a longer time frame. Always consider 2 or 3 alternatives with 2 or 3 tactical options each. There is usually a nicer way to do an attack and a meaner way. There is usually an option for a big attack and a smaller strike.

Example: Trains can be hit with rifle fire to damage cargo (new cars, electric components, military goods, liquid containers) or even the diesel fuel tanks on the engines or the engines themselves. Or they can be derailed with explosives or by loosening the rails. In between would be an action where the train is stopped by a burning car on the rails i front of it ( and then probably one behind it too), then a hole is shot into several tanks (fuel and flammable cargo) and a timed device or a tracer bullet ignites the fuels. If time or situation warrant long range rifles could also pound on the engines and containers to increase damage. Nails or caltrops could be laid to slow down fire trucks and police. While the third option is less extreme than the de-railing option, if it is done in an urban area or on a bridge it could cause major damage. The choice of these 3 depends on the insurgents capability, weapons and the media program they are following at the time.

Example II.
Stop traffic innocently and attach thermite or explosives on gasoline and or diesel/chemical tanker trucks that are headed downtown or toward your target area. Use powerful magnet or sticky glues to hold devices onto trucks. Once at the target a larger diversion or car bomb (smoker or ? ) stops traffic again where you want it to and then the tanker vessel is punctured as the Mayor receives word of the ransom or demands. maybe a piercing dart or a cross bow would work or work on the vehicle fuel tank ?) Evacuation notices are dispersed. Warnings are made to the police not to search any vehicles in the area or to approach the vehicles - or else detonation. Remind them of the multiple devices - timed, triggered, remote and car bombs and snipers.

VI. 5 : Regional or Mobile Security
Any concentrations of troops will be attacked brutally & the same goes for villages or populations suspected of aiding insurgents. The military's drones, satellites, infrared sensors & laser guided smart bombs (J-Dam too) will seek out targets & eliminate resistance. So, in general stay dispersed & set up multiple fake villages, facades, decoys. Stay in groups of 16 to 30 fighters spread out over miles (8-12) -- with a few more old & young people as cover. Even spread out like that you can still pull people together (representatives & commanders) for meetings (fishbowls too). Can also use simple radio communications within the area with few details revealed in conversation -- just chat - with coded times & coded warnings, etc. On the first floor of 4 story apartment or house or in basements of a two story structure, you can have 25 to 40 people without being detected or heard. The building mass protects from infrared & most spyware - other than window glass or inside listening devices Possible exceptions to the stay dispersed rule are in heavy jungle or forest in Mountainous areas (or areas with heavy fog or clouds -- Snow (?)) Maybe areas with lots of cattle or other animals -- wild & domestic could confuse sensors too -- though if they are guerrilla cattle -- better keep them dispersed too -- unless it is worth losing some for your cover.
You should have prepared several bunkers at different places throughout your base of operations. Here, you can store excess items rather than carry them around with you all the time. These should offer some shelter, not only from the cold & rain, but also from light artillery, such as grenades launched from guns & mortars. Thus, if the attackers are only a small unit you may have some time to evacuate & retrieve valuable equipment.

VI. 6 : Choosing Targets
Look in the local yellow pages for a facility that you want to attack. Cruise on your bike or car along industrial routes, powerlines or roads looking for various & novel targets from culverts or waster water pipes that you want to plug to electric power substations that you want to fry up. Study what other groups have done & how they randomly mix up targets (Banks, assassinations, infrastructure, military, etc.)

An effective form of sabotage is to plug culverts on dirt & gravel roads. Floodwaters from storms or snowmelt, unable to flow under the road through the culvert, wash out the road, making it impassable. If the road has culverts, stuff the uphill ends with rocks & other debris. Then dig through the road fill to expose the top of the culvert. If this is done at the beginning of a seasonal rainy period or before spring run-off in snow country, most culverts will wash out, creating an excellent vehicle barrier. Keep your work hidden from drivers on the road, otherwise it might be noticed & removed before the next storm. You can also remove the culverts, using the come-along or a vehicle to drag them out. First dig all the road fill off the top of the culvert & free an end enough to get a choker on it. Using pole A-frames & fairleads as necessary, pull upward on the end of the culvert, lifting it out of the road. Use the come-along or a vehicle to pull on the cable, through tackle as necessary, & then, bend the culvert when one end is free, leaving it half buried in the road. The idea is to plug the culvert inside the inlet opening so the plugging is not visible to road maintenance crews peering down from the road as they drive by in their pickups.

1) To take out roads without heavy equipment or back-breaking labor, get some 2 x 4s, chicken wire, black plastic, nails, & staple gun. These materials & tools are light enough so that you & a friend can pack them into the area-thus not having to drive & leave your vehicle in an incriminating spot. You'll generally be working below the road surface, so eve if a car comes, you'll either be out of sight already or you can watch for headlights & duck in time.
Scope out the road ahead of time. Measure the diameters of the culverts at strategic points on the road. Then go home & cut 2 x 4s to fit each of t culverts. For culverts 30 inches & less in diameter, all you'll need are pieces a few inches longer than the diameter. For larger culverts, you might want more strength than this simple "X" frame can provide. You could use 3 in the form of a triangle, or four in the shape of a tic-tac-toe. But do not nail them together yet. You'll also need enough chicken wire & black plastic to cover twice the combined surface areas of your culvert ends. Bring a few pounds of galvanized 16-penny nails (3 inches long), staples & staple gun, hammer, cutters, & a pickax.
Nail the 2 x 4s together to make a frame that fits over the uphill end of the culvert. Once you've fitted the frame, cut a piece of chicken wire about 2 feet wider & taller than the end of the culvert. Center the wire over the frame & liberally staple it in place. Cut an equivalent piece of black plastic & staple it over the chicken wire. (You may need to use several overlapping pieces.) Place rocks, soil, & other heavy debris on the bottom, top, & to hold the plug securely in place. This is where the pickax is handy.
If there was water flowing through the culvert, it should now be backing up & forming a little reservoir. As long as your frame can support the weight then this lake should grow until it washes over the road. You might want to let some water continue to flow through by poking holes in the bottom of the plastic This way, your efforts are more likely to remain unnoticed until after the next big rainstorm or until snowmelt comes. The increased flow during a storm will cause more damage.
2) An effective way of plugging a culvert is as follows: Slide a plywood shelf into the culvert so you can lie on it. 1 Drill six holes at the lower (downstream) end of the culvert while resting comfortably on your shelf. Twist in heavy eye screws with a section of dowel. Affix doubled-up 1 inch mesh chicken wire to the eye screws. Flow-borne debris will form a solid plug inside the culvert up against the chicken wire & will block the culvert. Plastic, canvas or thin metal sheets can also be wired to parts of the chicken wire for a faster clog. (SEE FIGURE VI. 7.2) None of the blockage should be visible from the road. If maintenance workers cut the chicken wire after debris has piled up against it, this should not be enough to flush out the culvert. On smaller culverts, simply wad chicken wire a leg's length up the lower end.
3) Corrugated roofing metal or other types of sheet metal are ideal materials for blocking culverts under roads. Use your ingenuity to affix them to the culvert so they will stay in place in high water. Try using eye bolts as suggested above, or drive large nails into the walls of the culvert.
4) Steel culverts that are large enough to walk into & difficult to block can be wrenched by punching holes in their bottom with a rock pick. This allows water to seep underneath & cause the gradual washout of the culvert. The damage is irreparable but may take a long time, so plan ahead! This method works best in culvert bridges that are primarily backfilled with dirt.
5) For narrow culverts, make a trip to an auto junkyard & buy collapsed "space saver" spare tires. Position the collapsed spare in the culvert & inflate it with a bike pump or other inflator. As it expands, it will wedge itself in the culvert. You could also plug the "donut" hole of the tire with debris or rags/plastic..
Plug culverts on newer roads that haven't been fully compacted. These wash out more easily. Plug culverts in road sections that have substantial fill on the outlet side. It is more difficult to repair these wash-outs. Since round corrugated metal culvert pipe comes in 2" increments from 6 inches on up, it makes sense to use round stuff to plug them: Volleyballs ( 8"), soccerballs ( 9"), & basketballs ( 9"+) can be used to plug 8 to 12 inch diameter culverts. Partially deflate the ball, shove into the culvert inlet a short distance, then over-inflate it in place. For 10 & 12 inch culverts, wrap the ball with absorbent material such cotton toweling to make up the diameter difference. Cover the ball with debris & rocks, but not past (outside) the pipe opening. All of this stuff can be backpacked, & tire pumps & sports equipment are not unusual item have in your car.

A partially inflated tire inner tube shoved in & pumped up to fill the gap might also work. It would be more flexible for various culvert sizes, but requires more pumping. Even a large balloon, like a weather balloon, placed in the culvert & then inflated might work. Plastic 5 gallon buckets with lids are a common sight in dumps & along the road. They are about 12" in diameter at the top, & could be wedged in 12" culverts, tapered end first, then filled with rocks & -debris. The black plastic planter buckets available in nurseries also come in 2 inch increments.
Large culverts (16" on up) can be plugged with sandbags, which are routinely used for bank stabilization & temporary road sign ballast. Pick up a few & put in your car trunk or truck bed. The extra weight will give better traction to get to those hard-to-reach culverts. Very Large culverts in urban areas can be plugged with sand bags & large inner tubes used for truck tires. Back his up with chicken wire & debris.
To jam a culvert: A) One can do it like George Stewart in his novel Storm & jam a lead hog into it. (Naw, too damn heavy to carry up a road in a backpack).
B) If the culvert is between 6 inches in diameter & two feet one could use plastic two-part expanding wall insulating foam mixed in appropriate amounts in a trash bag which you quickly jam in the culvert as the foam expands. The trash bag (small for small pipes, large for large ones) will fill with foam to inflate across the pipe diameter rather than along its length ) plugging it instead of just laying along its bottom. Buy the two-part (50/50 mix) expanding foam, which comes in 2 one-pint containers (available at most home builder supply stores). It expands about 20 times the liquid volume. Experiment with the stuff before trying it in a culvert you want to plug. The couple of quarts of liquid, rash bags, & expanding foam are easy to carry in a backpack.
C) If the culvert is larger than 2 feet in diameter, you could probably tie several large foam bags together & emplace some kind of cross bracing to jam he pipe. Remember that a hell of a lot of water must be held back to jam a large culvert until the road erodes around the culvert, so think it through to make sure your plug will hold.
9) Do your culvert plugging before the rainy season or snowmelt in your area. That way your plug need not remain undiscovered for a long time, otherwise, small backups of water might be visible from vehicles on the road. Watch weather reports & try to plug culverts shortly before major storms are forecast to hit the area.
10) If you don't want to carry anything incriminating into the field for plugging culverts, use large rocks & multi-branched limbs on culverts up to 2 feet in diameter. Bigger rocks won't wash out readily; dead tree branches with many limbs will jam in place easily. Flood-borne debris will finish job (especially if you toss a lot of debris in the streambed upstream of the vent) & even make the washout look "natural." Restore the appearance of the mouth of the culvert to avoid tipping off a passing guard.

INDUSTRIAL WASTE OUTFLOWS are the most noxious of all pipes. The most toxic waters from an industry run anywhere from completely clear & clean-looking to completely black. The water can turn blue litmus paper red or vice versa. If a pipe doesn't fit one of the first four categories, & is located near a chemical, oil, metal, high tech, mining, or other plant, it's probably a toxic discharge. Row your boat or canoe along a river & look for pipes. Use a tape measure to determine the inside pipe diameter. Note the type of pipe (concrete, steel, or clay).
SEWER pipes are distinguished by gray-colored water discharges, algae growing in the pipe, rancid smells, & black ooze. These pipes range in size from 12 to 96 inches. LANDFILLS leak toxic contaminants. The leacheate is often pumped into local water body. Look for orange iron stains from the leacheate. Thin films will form on puddles of the leacheate.
RAINWATER RUNOFF & drainage pipes are common. The pipes are at the end of natural or artificial drainage courses. They are most often 18 or 12 inches in diameter. They usually run clear, except after a cloudburst begins. Then all the crap on the roads gets washed into the water. Plugging a rainwater runoff pipe can have a delayed but dramatic effect on a local industry or shopping mall.
COOLING WATER pipes are universally warm, foamy, BIG, & tough to plug. Generally, intakes for cooling water pipes for chemical plants should be plugged because a sudden blockage can result in dangerous destruction.
SMALL PIPES 18 inches & less in diameter. First, temporarily block the flow in the pipe to make your job easier. Many pipes have little flow during dry weather. If there is a flow, stop it up temporarily with one or more sand bags. Stuff the sand bag up the pipe as far as you can. This will give you the time you need to work. Fill a second sand bag with a water-cement-gravel mixture & push it in up to the first sand bag. At this point you should have blocked flow from the pipe. Add: a little cement around the bag to lock it in place. Cement in a few bigger rocks for good measure. (See Figure VI. 81.) Sometimes a bucket filled with cement & gravel will just fit into a pipe. This is especially true for 12" pipes. Add extra cement around the edges inside the pipe to ensure good anchoring. Similar objects filled with cement are available for smaller pipes (vehicle exhaust pipes, for example). Plumber supply stores' have commercial pipe plugs for 2 to 8 inch pipes.
MEDIUM PIPES 2 to 5 feet in diameter. For sewer manholes, simply lift the cover & fill the manhole with sandbags. Twenty-five 60 pound bags will fill the largest ones. Far fewer bags can be used if you only stuff them up the exit pipe. The weight of the water will force a complete blockage as the manhole' fills up. (See Figure VI. 82) Sandbags may also be used as a temporary block while the pipe exit is blocked with bricks & cement. Cement & gravel filled bags will do if extra cement is put between the bags. This is a big operation & will require a vehicle & one to two hours work for two people.
BIG PIPES 5 feet & bigger in diameter. These pipes can be bricked & dammed if they are occasionally dry. There may be no or low flow times of day or year. Nail guns may be used to attach strips of 'sheet metal onto bulkheads even if there is some flow. Or you can hammer in regular nails or special nails designed for concrete. Look upstream for valves, gates, weirs, & intakes which may be easier to tug or gum up. When you are done: Clean up all equipment. Dispose of empty containers (fingerprints!). Camouflage your plugged pipe if possible. A pipe that's hard - to find is a pipe that's hard to fix. Don't return to view your handiwork. Rest assured that a well-executed pipe plug will shut down even a large operation. City-sized chemical facilities have been shut down by pipe plugs in the past. The pasty trick is to plug wastewater discharge pipes from various industries: Chemical, metal working, electrical generating, mining, sewerage, refining & drilling plants all discharge large amounts of wastewater (flow rates can exceed several million gallons per day from a single source). Discharge pipes are so common & lowly they are ignored by most security personnel. Unless guards are tipped off beforehand, pipes are often sitting ducks.
Safety - 1) If the company wants to get rid of the crap, it must be dangerous to your health. Use waterproof gloves & eye protection. Wear old rain gear that you can affordably discard after each job. The following parts of your body should be protected on a job: Eyes-wear goggles; Skin-wear gloves & maybe a rain jacket; Lungs-gas masks are usually unnecessary, but it is prudent to work quickly in order to reduce your risk; feet - wear rubber boots; Mouth-wear a bandanna over your mouth to prevent liquid droplets from splashing into your mouth, especially when working around sewage. 2) Your plug may be stronger than some older concrete pipes. Plugging may cause bulkheads to collapse. Don't stick around. 3) Anchor cement is caustic & may burn your cuticles & sting in cuts. Always wash after using it. 4) Watch out for video cameras. Parallel chainlink fences spaced 5 feet or so apart may indicate that motion detectors are in use. Small microwave antennas may have motion detectors.

VI. 9 : Hydro Plant Flood Gates

The flood gates of many hydro plants are controlled by radio messages sent from hundreds of miles away & transmitted by microwave stations. When opened, the river level below can rise 10 feet or more in a minute & the river keeps rising so long as the gates are open or until a source of the water is exhausted. The source generally contains thousands of acre feet of water - sometimes enough to overflow or wash out a dam down stream. Modern technology generally renders the need for humans at the plants obsolete. Consequently if one of the transmitters were destroyed a considerable amount of impounded water would be lost before remedial action could be taken. The transmitters are generally unguarded.
FIELD NOTES - Flush a mixture of dry plaster & sawdust in a nylon stocking down toilets in order to block the sewer systems of objectionable developments such as ski resorts & National Park hotels. Ocean front sewer pipes often have metal tide gate flaps to prevent sea water from flooding the pipe during high tide. Lock it shut. Some tide gates have wing nut locking mechanisms. Use them. Waste pond & waste ditch overflows are easily blocked because the outer pressure is working in your favor. Fill a sandbag(s) with mixed wet anchor cement & gravel, & stuff it in the upper end. At many dumps & industrial sites you will find monitoring well caps. These are used to detect pollution underground. Do not touch them or you may danger a site cleanup.
Large utility company cooling water outfalls may discharge millions of gallons per day, but these megaplants also have much smaller yet equally vital wastewater flows- of typically 1-10 MGD flows. A saboteur can easily stop these flows. Valves & flood gates may also be vulnerable.
2) Start small. What you learn on small pipes will help you with the big ones.
3) Good quality, waterproof, quick-drying cement is worth its weight in gold. Anchoring cement has all these properties & it expands as it sets, too. Marine patching cement is even better, but you'll need practice to use it well.
4) When using cement, mix it with lots of gravel & stones. They provide cheap bulk & make the plug much tougher. If you want to ruin a company's day for sure, add some rebar & chicken wire to your cement plugs.
5) Plugging an intake or a bulkhead at the point where a channel flow goes underground is very effective. The flowing water will help push your plug deeper into the pipe (See Figure VI. 92).

Road trashing can be done casually by a group on a hike, taking care that they aren't caught while doing it. Although effective these actions bear few dangers. To effectively close roads, strike at numerous points along a single road, & at many roads within the road network surrounding an area. Maintain your campaign against the roads in the area after they are repaired, strike again, & again. It will become too costly to continue repairing them & roads will begin to be abandoned. As a campaign against roads becomes effective or costly, security precautions will need to become stringent to avoid being caught.
Concern about the federal deficit is conducive to citizen resistance strategies. A dispersed campaign of nibbling away at the road infrastructure on public (or private) lands will soon exhaust road repair budgets. Attacks on highways & urban transportation systems can lead to quick negotiations as outraged citizens blame the government for a lack of security & for policies that provoke the insurgents. Many forest & rural roads have gates. Cause confusion by getting padlocks & locking gates yourself. Liquid Solder in the keyhole prevents the lock from being picked. Most gates have a casing around the lock to prevent them from being cut with bolt cutters. Close a road near the beginning. This keeps vehicles out.
A clever escapade involved a controversial landing strip. In 1986, a person dug 21 holes with a porthole digger in rows three-abreast along the strip. Salt was put into each. Elk & deer pawed the holes to get the salt & made the dirt strip unusable for aircraft.
In the proper location, it is possible for a group of people, using only their hands, to fill a road with enough boulders & other debris to act as an effective barrier to most vehicles. A vehicle with a winch, a bulldozer, or a crew of workers might be able to clear the road to permit passage in a few hours.
If you ever run across an unattended drill rig, take the bits away & bury them. Do likewise with any strange looking fittings you find, especially if they are for compressors or pumps. Some of these things are specialized & aren't easily replaced. If there are rows of cuttings, scatter these around. If there are cores, break & scatter them.

VI. 11 : SPIKING & NAILING ROADS: Where to Place Road Spikes
As these spikes have sharp tips, wear gloves when handling them (wear gloves also for security reasons, & be sure the spikes don't carry fingerprints). Make special containers for carrying your spikes-unprotected, they can puncture a backpack. Construct spike quivers out of 3-inch diameter ABS plastic pipe.
For effectiveness give thought to where you place road spikes Seek out areas where a blow-out or flat might put the driver or vehicle in danger. Roads or jeep trails with a sheer, long drop-off are obvious danger zones. Determine whether you should spike a long vehicle route at the beginning or in a remote location in the middle. Although road spikes are difficult to see from a vehicle (particularly a charging muscle wagon), picking a spot where they will be extra difficult to see will increase their effectiveness. Choose a spot with vegetation to the side, shadows, a dip in the route or a curve. Camouflaging will obscure the 3 inches of dark rod protruding from the ground. Also, pick a site where there is an excellent chance of the road spike making contact with a tire. At some points along a vehicle route, there may be several feet of variance for the tires. Several road spikes may be needed across the route there to flatten a tire. Instead, select a spot where ruts or natural constrictions keep the tire tread confined & where one spike is sure to make contact with knobby rubber. Crossings of streams & dry washes are also choice locations. Look at the terrain & previous vehicle tracks to determine where each of your spikes will wreak maximum havoc on vehicle tires. Consider the direction most vehicles will be traveling & incline the road spikes accordingly. It may be necessary on some routes to direct your spikes in both directions. Even with proper planning of spike emplacement, your road spikes may stand out. Put a tumbleweed, litter, or small branches over visible spikes. Paint spikes on asphalt black & those on concrete roads gray.
Setting Spikes
Make the "cap" illustrated here so that you can drive the stakes into ground without blunting the sharp end. Buy two 3/8 to 1/4 inch galvanized "reducers," one 3/8 by 5 inch galvanized pipe nipple, & one 1/4 inch nipple: any length (the shorter the better), & assemble as follows: Screw the inch long pipe into the large ends of both reducers; screw the smaller pipe the small end of one of the reducers; then cut it off flush. Place the reducer with the flush-cut nipple over the sharp end of the spike & hammer the other end of the, reducer to drive the stake into ground. If you simply put a piece of 1/4 inch pipe over the sharp end of the stake & hammered on it to drive in the rebar, one pipe end would deform quickly from hammering & the stake would wedge up in the other end. Reducers hold their shape & make this a long lasting tool. Driving the stake creates a seat (in the end that fits over the stake) into which succeeding road spikes should be fitted. (SEE FIGURE VI. 11.2) To set spikes into an asphalt roadway it helps to have both ends of the spike sharpened.
Alternative Spike Driver - Rebar road spikes can be driven into soft (or muddy) ground without dulling the business end & without using a spike driver. Tightly clamp a large pair of visegrips to the spike & tap on the visegrips with a hammer to sink the spike, into the ground. In harder ground, visegrips & a simple spike driver can be used. Use a three-inch section of 3/8 inch pipe with a 3/8" by 1/4" reducer or a 3/8" end cap (block-off cap) screwed on the end. Tightly clamp the visegrips 3 1/2 inches from the pointed end of the rebar road spike. Slide the spike drive over the rebar so it rests on the visegrips but does not touch the sharp end of the rebar (half an inch gap should be present). By hammering on the end of the spike driver, the rebar spike will be driven into the ground through the visegrip.

Another weapon against tires is the spike or nailboard. Short scraps of re-bar, left over after making spikes, are useful here. For rebar spikes, take a to 4 foot length of standard 2 x 4 or 2 x 6 lumber & stud it with spikes. Our spikes protrude 4 to 6 inches out of the board at a 45-degree angle & are usually placed 3 to 4 inches apart. The spikes can all be angled in one direction, or angled two ways, so as to puncture tires coming from either direction To place the spikes, drill a hole the diameter of the spike, at the desired angle through the board. After placing the spikes in the board, you may want to nail another board across the bottom as backing, so the weight of the vehicle won't drive the spike down into the hole before the tip accomplishes its purpose.
Nailboards, made from strips of 1" or 1 1/2"-thick plywood with numerous nails driven through at an angle, are ideal for dirt bikes, whose narrow tires may miss rebar spikes. We recommend nails of at least 20d size, since small ones might be bent by the tires. Nail & spikeboards should be anchored to the ground. This is done drilling a hole in each end of the board, & by driving an L-shaped piece of rebar through each hole. Use 14 inch for soil emplacements & 36 inch for sand or mud emplacements. Bury the wood portion of a spikeboard in the ground. Carry a digging tool for this. Camouflage your emplacements. Be creative. Most Hummer freaks & dirt bike yahoos don't think anything of running over a small piece of brush, tumbleweed, or litter which conceals a spikeboard. Avoid leaving fingerprints anywhere on a spike or even on the boards. An easy way to drive nails through a nailboard is to place the board on sand or soft dirt & drive in the nails through the board into the dirt. Turn it over & you have a nailboard. To anchor boards, try driving large nails or bridge timber spikes through the board into the ground. Some agents argue that nails should not extend more than an inch & a half from the board because they will bend on contact with the tires. For cheap nailboards: Stud a piece of irregularly-shaped cardboard (it looks like trash that way) with roofing nails & spray paint the whole thing brown so the nails are not noticeable from a moving vehicle. Do the same with a piece of carpet scrap, but no paint this time.
For urban roadways use 16p nailboards with a small piece of carpet or a plastic bag over it.
(See also Section VII. Weapons & Communications for info on making road spikes & caltrops).

VI. 13 : Wood Bridges
Wooden bridges require major expense to replace. It takes more than a can of kerosene to burn one. A huge pile of dry firewood must be heaped up under the load carrying timbers of the bridge to sustain a fire of sufficient heat & duration to burn a soggy old bridge. Fill the available dry area under the bridge, or crib up a log platform covered with dirt, sand, or rock on which to lay the fire. Several armloads of small stuff, topped with progressively larger limbs & finally logs should be crammed right up to the underside of the timbers. After the small stuff burns a little & the fire collapses, you should stoke it with big limbs & logs & stuff the openings with branches. Then you can walk away confident of the results. You can also saw through bridge timbers from the underside with a chain, bow, or crosscut saw. It is hard to avoid hitting nails. If noise is a problem, a bow saw blade cuts easily when sharp & can be quickly replaced when dulled. A few drops of kerosene will make it cut smoothly in resinous or creosote-treated wood.

VI. 14 : Closing Urban Roads & Chaos on the Highways
Nails spread on the roadways, snipers & car bombs are all effective at closing any road. Trees & power poles can also be felled to land on a road. Knocking out the electric power or damaging the traffic lights can create mayhem at least temporarily. Even smoking cars (fake car bombs) can cause panic & road closures especially in downtown or other shopping areas. Once an insurgency grows they can simply declare a No Transport Day & effectively shut down traffic by threat alone. This has been a common practice in El Salvador, Colombia & Nepal. The IRA used to shut the whole British railway system down with a single phone call. Sometimes these were ruses, but given the pre-supplied codes & a number of previous & post attacks the government could not risk leaving the trains running while under threat. (See also Sections on plugging culverts, destroying bridges (below) & car bombs (VII.).

Modern or large steel bridges require some expertise to destroy, however, anyone can shut one down & possibly cause major expenses to fix. With a saws-all, thermite (thermate too?) or explosives one can attack the key components such as where the cables attach (especially at the ends of the bridge). Intermediate supports & cable attachments are also vulnerable. Large truck bombs or detonated gasoline or diesel tanker trucks could be used. Simply ramming a bridge support or a mid-span support could cause major damage. Ships could also be used. A series of attacks using all of the above techniques would be very effective. Cutting torches & large gas powered grinders (cut-off saws) can also tear apart any bridge in a matter of hours -- or cut the key supports thus shutting the bridge down for hours or days.

Corporate offices, Shopping Malls & Home Invasions
Attacks on urban targets will rattle the cage of the corporate echelon & force a serious consideration of the issues involved. Operating in the urban area provides the insurgent with a range of targets. As security is increased at rural target sites, saboteurs switch occasionally to less secure targets previously left untouched. These include equipment yards, sawmills, warehouses, corporate offices, & retail store outlets. Even individuals should not feel exempt from justice. The corporate structure routinely shields decision-makers from the consequences of their greedy acts. Corporate presidents, board members, & managers are rarely held accountable under the law, the usual punishment for crimes being a token fine paid by the corporation. When fixing blame for callous corporate activities, it is important to avoid field level managers simply carrying out orders. There are exceptions to this, however, such as a militantly anti-environmental logging supervisor or a relative of a higher level big shot.
Imagine the chilling effect on business activities if the owner & managers knew they might be held personally accountable. To spread chill, publicity should accompany such hits. Efforts must be made to garner public attention through the press. Brief cautionary phone calls can warn key individuals that their office or house might be next. Raids on personal residences should be planned & executed carefully.
Attacks on Corporate Offices
Corporate offices may range from small store-front operations to the massive glass & steel office complexes favored by the big multinational corporations. Corporate offices are vulnerable to a variety of sabotage techniques. For instance, a quick night raid involving breaking windows (through which paint, fire or stink bombs might be tossed for good measure). Other appropriate tactics for corporate offices include lock jamming, dumping noxious effluent, & sniping or breaking the upper windows in a large storm so that the water causes great damage.
The Daring Daylight Raid
At times, much publicity can be obtained from an action against corporate office in broad daylight. Urban daylight operations are riskier than night operations, & require precision in their execution. Following are some proven methods to follow: Planning: Study the target building & surroundings in detail. Important details are: Locations of doors & windows; Building security (i.e., guards & closed-circuit TV cameras); Parking lots 7 general parking access (for lookouts & getaway car); Lighting (mainly important for night hits); Approaches to the target & escape routes (don't rely on just one of each); Out-of-the-way access (loading docks, parking garages, etc.); Locations of possible witnesses.
Use any available pretext to examine the building layout. Dress like a typical businessperson & stroll about purposefully. Stop in as a pedestrian to for directions to a nearby building. Conservative-looking team members, inquire about renting office or convention space, & perhaps get a tour facility from the building supervisor. Always have a prepared story in case you are questioned. For detailed information, one of your team could try to get a janitorial job in the building (quit well before the hit). Detailed building plans may be on file & easily accessible at the office of the city or county building inspector. Pose as a prospective buyer (or buyer's representative), architectural student. etc.
Local newspapers are a source of information on what sort of development is going on or planned - this goes for big-city dailies as well as rural weeklies. Some report on permits for oil & gas exploration, & local mining activities. A good place to read a variety of publications without compromising your security is the periodical section of a public library. If you are interested in detailed information (names of individuals owning a business or a piece of property) a bit of investigative work in the library or at the county courthouse can produce results. City directories (or business directories such as Cole's or Polk's) may tell you who lives at a specific address or who owns a business. In most states, the office of Secretary of State usually maintains records of corporations incorporated in that state. You may be able to obtain copies of these records for a nominal fee. Finally, your city or county recorder has public records on deeds which show who owns what land or buildings. The tax assessor has public records of property taxes which also indicate ownership of all properties. The "Grantor" & "Grantee" books record real property transactions alphabetically by names.
When you have a likely phone number, you can verify it by calling under some innocent-sounding pretext. Matching license plate numbers at the corporate parking lot & at home is a good way of being sure that your target actually resides at a given address. Another way would be to pose as a prospective property buyer & inquire at the county courthouse about who owns a particular residence. This information is a matter of public record. Once you have a house pinpointed, study the layout of the neighborhood streets carefully. This will prevent your driver from inadvertently taking a dead-end street in an attempted escape. Scout by day & by night. Decide ahead of time exactly what slogans will go on what walls.
Check the target at the exact hour & night of the week just one week before the hit. This will reveal any routine activity for that day & time that might interfere with your plan. Follow the basic security precautions outlined elsewhere. Make sure your license number can't be read. If possible, use a brief drop & pickup-style hit, but avoid stopping directly in front of the target home. The corporate criminal's car can be hit at home, at work, or in the grocery store parking lot. Smelly liquids or aerosols can be used on the interior, & paint stripper can be used to slogan on the paint of the auto's exterior. It is usually too dangerous to fool with the engine (like sanding the oil), but tires are easy to ruin.
If feasible, determine typical conditions ahead of the action by scouting the target both one week & one day prior to the hit (at the same time of day). This will reveal patterns of activity to expect at the time of your hit. Consider a dry run to test your plan. Timing is important. Getaway vehicles must blend in with the area. If you require certain parking spaces, be patient & wait until they open. To be safe, get there well in advance.
When necessary, use diversionary tactics. A smoke bomb set off in a planter box might distract security. A well-timed phone call might distract a solitary receptionist in a front office waiting room. Some type of disguise is usually a good idea. The basic type is an eye-catching garment that tends to distract eyewitnesses. A brightly-colored ski mask, scarf, shirt, or the like tends to dominate in the descriptions later given to police. Wigs, dyed hair & fake mustaches can be bought cheaply at second-hand stores (like Goodwill) & at novelty shops. Use special wig cleaner (available at wig shops) to clean any second-hand wig. Wigs commonly cost 5 dollars or less. Hats or veils are used too.
Avoid elaborate disguises. Most don't look good close up, & may make someone suspicious. Shaving real facial hair or wearing a fake mustache can be an effective but simple disguise. See books like Corson's Stage Makeup (in most college libraries) for details on how to properly apply facial hair.
Such disguises are most effective if they can be quickly removed before one escapes the area or enters the getaway vehicle. The simplest method is to discard a garment while exiting the area. For example, a light jacket or second shirt worn on top of the first shirt (both bought at Goodwill) can be discarded in the trash, an unlocked closet, elevator, rest room, etc. Never discard a wig in this manner as it will invariably contain some of your hairs. Another disposal/quick-change method involves passing the items to a confederate totally different from you in appearance (for example, passing a brightly-colored shirt & wig from a man to a woman), with the receiver smuggling the V ms out in a large purse, shopping bag, or briefcase. This same person can also smuggle the disguise items into the target area for donning just prior to the attack.
Escape is the most critical item in your daylight raid plan. If foot pursuit is possible, a sack of BBs or bottle of cooking oil sloshed on a tile floor can delay pursuers, particularly in the confines of a hallway. If an elevator is necessary the plan, have a confederate hold the door open to insure quick getaway. o, don't neglect the fire stairs in high-rise buildings. Keep in mind that you
Verify the accuracy of the address through at least two sources. The phone book & city directory may help, though these may not be up-to-date & many prominent people will not be listed in phone directories. Books like Who's Who & its various regional editions have biographies of many corporate types, & while they do not give street addresses, they at least pinpoint the community in which they reside. so that a little additional detective work may turn up the actual address.

No assassination instructions should ever be written or recorded. Consequently, the decision to employ this technique must nearly always be reached in the field, at the area where the act will take place. Decision & instructions should be confined to an absolute minimum of persons. Ideally, only one person will be involved. No report may be made, but usually the act will be properly covered by normal news services, whose output is available to all concerned.

The techniques employed vary according to whether the subject is unaware of his danger, aware but unguarded, or guarded. They will also be affected by whether or not the assassin is to be killed along with the subject. Hereafter, hits in which the subject is unaware will be termed "simple"; those where the victim is guarded will be termed "guarded." If the assassin is to die with the subject, the act will be called "lost." If the assassin is to escape, the adjective will be "safe." No compromises exist here. The assassin must not fall alive into enemy hands. A further division is caused when there is a need to conceal the fact that the subject was actually the victim of assassination, rather than an accident or natural causes. If such concealment is desirable the operation will be called "secret"; if concealment is immaterial, the act will be called "open"; while if the assassination requires publicity to be effective it will be termed "terroristic."
Following these definitions, the assassination of Julius Caesar was safe, simple, & terroristic, while that of Huey Long was lost, guarded & open. Obviously, successful secret assassinations are not recorded as assassination at all. Augustus Caesar & Paul Wellstone may have been the victims of safe, guarded & secret assassination. The hit on Bobby Kennedy may have been intended to be "lost." Chase assassinations usually involve clandestine agents or members of criminal organizations. In safe hits, the assassin needs the qualities of a clandestine agent: determined, courageous, intelligent, resourceful, & physically active. If special equipment is to be used, such as firearms or drugs, it is clear that he must have outstanding skill with such equipment.
Except in terroristic assassinations, it is desirable that the assassin be transient in the area. He should have an absolute minimum of contact with the rest of the organization & his instructions should be given orally by one person only. His safe evacuation after the act is essential, but here again contact should be as limited as possible. It is preferable that the person issuing instructions also conduct any withdrawal or covering action which may be necessary.
In lost assassination, the assassin must be a fanatic of some sort. Politics, religion, & revenge are about the only feasible motives. Since a fanatic is unstable psychologically, he must be handled with extreme care. He must not know the identities of the other members of the organization, for although it is intended that he die in the act, something may go wrong. While the Assassin of Trotsky has never revealed any significant information, it was unsound to depend on this when the act was planned.

When the decision to assassinate has been reached, the tactics of the operation must be planned, based upon an estimate of the situation similar to that used in military operations. The preliminary estimate will reveal gaps in information & possibly indicate a need for special equipment which must be procured or constructed. When necessary data has been collected, an effective tactical plan can be prepared. Planning must be mental; no papers should ever contain evidence of the operation.
In resistance situations, assassination may be used as a counter-reprisal. Since this requires advertising to be effective, the resistance organization must be in a position to warn high officials publicly that their lives will be the price of reprisal action against innocent people. Such a threat is of no value unless it can be carried out, so it may be necessary to plan the assassination of various responsible officers of the oppressive regime & hold such plans in readiness to be used if provoked by brutality. Such plans must be modified frequently to meet changes in the tactical situation.

The essential point of assassination is the death of the subject. A human being may be killed in many ways but sureness is often overlooked by those who may be emotionally unstrung by the seriousness of the act. The specific technique depends upon a number of variables, but should be constant in one point: Death must be absolutely certain. The attempt on Hitler's life failed because the conspiracy did not give this matter proper attention.
Techniques may be considered as follows:
1. Manual - It is possible to kill a man with the bare hands, but few are skillful enough to do it well. Even a trained Judo expert will hesitate to risk killing by hand unless he has no alternative. However, the simplest local tools are often the most efficient means: a hammer, axe, wrench, screw driver, fire poker, kitchen knife, lamp stand, or anything hard, heavy & handy suffices. A length of rope or wire or a belt will do if the assassin is strong & agile. All such improvised weapons have the important advantage of availability & apparent innocence. In all safe cases where the assassin may be subject to search, either before or after the act, specialized weapons should not be used. Even in the lost case, the assassin may accidentally be searched before the act & should not carry an incriminating device - if any sort of lethal weapon can be improvised at or near the site. If the assassin normally carries weapons because of the nature of his job, it may still be desirable to improvise & implement at the scene to avoid disclosure of his identity.
2. Accidents - For secret assassination, either simple or chase, the contrived accident is the most effective technique. When successfully executed, it causes little excitement & is only casually investigated. The most efficient accident, in simple assassination, is a fall of 75 feet or more onto a hard surface. Elevator shafts, stair wells, unscreened windows & bridges will serve. Bridge falls into water are not reliable. In simple cases a private meeting with the subject may be arranged at a properly-cased location. The act may be executed by sudden, vigorous thrust of the ankles, tipping the subject over the edge. If the assassin immediately sets up an outcry, playing the "horrified witness", no alibi o r surreptitious withdrawal is necessary. In chase cases it will usually be necessary to stun or drug the subject before dropping him. Care is required to insure that no wound or condition not attributable to the fall is discernible after death.
Falls into the sea or swiftly flowing rivers may suffice if the subject cannot swim. It will be more reliable if the assassin can arrange to attempt rescue, as he can thus be sure of the subject's death & at the same time establish a workable alibi. If the subject's personal habits make it feasible, alcohol may be used to prepare him for a contrived accident of any kind. Falls before trains or subway cars are effective, but require exact timing & can seldom be free from unexpected observation.
Automobile accidents are a less satisfactory means of assassination. If the subject is deliberately run down, exact timing is necessary & investigation is likely to be thorough. If the subject's car is tampered with, reliability is low. The subject may be stunned or drugged & then placed in the car, but this is only reliable when the car can be run off a high cliff or into deep water without observation. Arson can cause accidental death if the subject is drugged & left in a burning building. Reliability is not satisfactory unless the building is isolated & highly combustible.
3. Drugs - In all types of hits except terroristic, drugs can be effective. If the assassin is trained as a doctor or nurse & the subject is under medical care, this is an easy & rare method. An overdose of morphine administered as a sedative will cause death without disturbance & is difficult to detect. The size of the dose depends on whether the subject has been using narcotics regularly. If not, 2 grains will suffice. If the subject drinks heavily, morphine or a similar narcotic can be injected at the passing out stage, & the cause of death will often be held to be acute alcoholism. Specific poisons, such as arsenic or strychnine, are effective but their possession or procurement is incriminating, & accurate dosage is problematical.
4. Edge Weapons: Any locally obtained edge device may be successfully employed. A
certain minimum of anatomical knowledge is needed for reliability. Puncture wounds of the body cavity may not be reliable unless the heart is reached. The heart is protected by the rib cage & is not always easy to locate. Absolute reliability is obtained by severing the spinal cord in the cervical region. This can be done with the point of a knife or a light blow of an axe or hatchet. Another reliable method is the severing of both jugular & carotid blood vessels on both sides of the windpipe. If the subject has been rendered unconscious by other wounds or drugs, either of the above methods can be used.
5. Blunt Weapons: Blunt weapons require anatomical knowledge for effective use. Their main advantage is their universal availability. A hammer or Baseball bat may be picked up almost anywhere in the world. Even a rock or a heavy stick will do, & nothing resembling a weapon need be procured, carried or subsequently disposed of. Blows should be directed to the temple, the area just below & behind the ear, & the lower, rear portion of the skull. Of course, if the blow is very heavy, any portion of the upper skull will do. The lower frontal portion of the head, from the eyes to the throat, can withstand enormous blows without fatal consequences.
6. Firearms: Firearms are often used in assassination, often ineffectively. The assassin usually has insufficient technical knowledge of the limitations of weapons, & expects more range, accuracy & killing power than can be provided with reliability. Since certainty of death is the major requirement, firearms should be used which can provide destructive power in excess of that thought to be necessary, & ranges should be half that considered practical for the weapon. Firearm possession is often incriminating. They may be difficult to obtain. They require a degree of experience from the user. They are loud. Their accuracy is over-rated. There. are cases in which firearms are probably more efficient than other means. These cases usually involve distance between the assassin & the subject, or comparative physical weakness of the assassin, as with a woman.
(a) The precision rifle. In guarded assassination, a good hunting or target rifle should always be considered as a possibility. Absolute reliability can nearly always be achieved at a distance of 100 yards. The rifle should be a well made bolt or falling block action type, handling a powerful long-range cartridge: 300 F.A.B. Magnum is probably the best cartridge readily available; other excellent calibers are 270 Winchester Magnum, 30-- 06 & 8 x 60 Magnum. These are preferable to ordinary military calibers, since ammunition available for them is usually of the expanding bullet type, whereas most ammunition for military rifles is full jacketed & hence not sufficiently lethal.
Ideally, the weapon should achieve groups of one inch at 100 yards. The sight should be telescopic for accuracy & because they are better in dim light or near darkness. As long as the bare outline of the target is discernible, a telescope sight will work, even if the rifle & shooter are in total darkness. An expanding, hunting bullet of such calibers as described above will produce extravagant laceration & shock at short or mid-range. If a man is struck just once in the body cavity, his death is almost entirely certain. Public figures or guarded officials may be killed with great reliability & some safety if a firing point can be established prior to an official occasion. The propaganda value of this system may be high.
(b) The machine gun - Machine guns may be used in most cases where the precision rifle is applicable. Usually, this will require the subversion of a unit of an official guard at a ceremony, though a skillful & determined team might conceivably dispose o f a loyal gun crew without commotion & take over the gun at the critical time. The area fire capacity of the machine gun should not be used to search out a concealed subject. The automatic feature of the machine gun should rather be used to increase reliability by placing a 5 second burst on the subject. Even with full jacket ammunition, this will be absolute lethal is the burst pattern is no larger than a man. This can be accomplished at about 150 yards. In ideal circumstances, a properly padded & targeted machine gun can do it at 800 yards. The major difficulty is placing the first burst exactly on the target, as most machine gunners are trained to spot their fire on target by observation of strike. This will not do in assassination as the subject will not wait.
(c)The Submachine Gun: Known as the "machine-pistol" by the Russians & Germans is occasionally useful. Unlike the rifle & machine gun, this is a short range weapon & since it fires pistol ammunition, much less powerful. To be reliable, it should deliver at least 5 rounds into the subject's chest (.45 caliber U.S. weapons have a larger margin of killing efficiency than the 9 mm European arms). The assassination range of the sub-machine gun is point-blank. While accurate single rounds can be delivered by sub-machine gunners at 50 yards or more, this is not certain enough for assassination. Under ordinary circumstances, it should be used as a fully automatic weapon. In the hands of a capable gunner, a high cyclic rate is a distinct advantage, as speed of execution is most desirable, particularly in the case of multiple subjects. The sub-machine gun is especially adapted to indoor work when more than one subject is to be assassinated. An effective technique has been devised for the use of a pair of gunners, by which a room containing as many as a dozen subjects can be "purifico" in about 20 seconds with little or no risk to the gunners.
(d) The Shotgun: A large bore shotgun is an effective killer if the range is under 10 yards. It should be used only on single targets as it cannot sustain fire successfully. The barrel may be "sawed" off for convenience, but this is not a significant factor in its killing performance. 00 buckshot is the best shot size for a 12 gage gun, but anything from single balls to bird shot will do if the range is right. The assassin should aim for the solar plexus as the shot pattern is small at close range & can easily miss the head.
(e) The Pistol - While the handgun is inefficient as a weapon of assassination, it is often used, partly because it is readily available & can be concealed on the person, & partly because its limitations are not widely appreciated. While many well known assassinations have been carried out with pistols (Lincoln, Harding, Gandhi), such attempts fail as often as they succeed, (Truman, Roosevelt, Churchill, Reagan). If a pistol is used, it should be powerful & fired from just beyond reach. In the hands of an expert, a powerful pistol is quite deadly. 45 Colt, 44 Special & 357 Magnum are efficient calibers. In all cases, the subject should be hit solidly at least 3 times for reliability.
(f)Silent Firearms - The sound of the explosion of the propellant in a firearm can be effectively silenced by appropriate attachments. However, the sound of the projectile passing through the air cannot, since this sound is generated outside the weapon. In cases where the velocity of the bullet greatly exceeds that of sound, the noise so generated is louder than that of the explosion. Since all powerful rifles have muzzle velocities of over 2000 feet per second, they cannot be silenced. Pistol bullets, on the other hand, usually travel slower than sound & the sound of their flight is negligible. Therefore, pistols, submachine guns & any sort of improvised carbine or rifle which will take a low velocity cartridge can be silenced. The user should not forget that the sound of the operation of a repeating action is considerable, & that the sound of bullet strike, particularly in bone is quite loud.
Silent firearms are only occasionally useful to the assassin, though they have been widely publicized in this connection. Because permissible velocity is low, effective precision range is held to about 100 yards with rifle or carbine type weapons, while with pistols, silent or otherwise, are most efficient just beyond arms length. The silent feature attempts to provide a degree of safety to the assassin, but mere possession of a silent firearm is likely to create enough hazard to counter the advantage of its silence. The silent pistol combines the disadvantages of any pistol with the added one of its obviously clandestine purpose. A telescopically sighted, closed-action carbine shooting a low velocity bullet of great weight, & built for accuracy, could be useful to an assassin in certain situations.
7. Explosives: Bombs & demolition charges of various sorts have been used frequently in assassination. Such devices, in terroristic & open assassination, can provide safety & overcome guard barriers, but it is curious that bombs have often been the implement of lost assassinations. The major factor which affects reliability is the use of explosives is that the charge must be large & the timing of the detonation must be controlled exactly. A small or moderate explosive charge is highly unreliable as a cause of death, & time delay or booby-trap devices are extremely prone to kill the wrong man. The death of casual bystanders can often produce public reactions unfavorable to the cause for which the assassination is carried out. Bombs or grenades should never be thrown at a subject. While this will cause a commotion & may result in the subject's death, it is sloppy, unreliable, & bad propaganda.

Ten pounds of high explosive should normally be regarded as a minimum, & this is with fragmentation material included. The latter can consist of any hard, material as long as the fragments are large enough. Metal or rock fragments should be walnut-size. If solid plates are used, to be ruptured by the explosion, cast iron, 1" thick, gives excellent fragmentation. Military or commercial high explosives are practical for use in assassination.
Homemade or improvised explosives should be avoided. While possibly powerful, they tend to be dangerous & unreliable. Anti-personnel explosive missiles are excellent, provided the assassin has sufficient technical knowledge to fuse them properly. 81 or 82 mm mortar shells, or the 120 mm mortar shell, are particularly good, large enough to be reliable & small enough to be carried by one man. The charge should be so placed that the subject is within 6 feet from it at the moment of detonation. A large, shaped charge with the bomb filled with iron fragments (such as 1" nuts & bolts) will fire a highly lethal shotgun-type to 50 yards. This reaction has not been thoroughly tested, however, & an exact replica of the proposed device should be fired in advance to determine exact range, pattern-size, & penetration of fragments. Fragments should penetrate at least 1" of seasoned pine or equivalent for minimum reliability. Any firing device may be used which permits exact control by the assassin. An ordinary commercial or military explorer is efficient, as long as it is rigged for instantaneous action with no time fuse in the system. The wise electric target can serve as the triggering device & provide exact timing from as far away as the assassin can reliably hit the target. This will avoid the disadvantages of stringing wire between the proposed positions of the assassin & the subject, & also permit the assassin to fire the charge from a variety of possible positions. A radio switch can be used to fire, though its reliability is somewhat lower & its procurement may not be easy.
EXAMPLES of the assassinations & attempts: Marat; Hedrich; Hitler; Harding; Roosevelt; Grand Duke Sergei; Truman; Pirhivie; Mussolini; Archduke Francis Ferdinand; Benes; Aung Sang Madero; Kirov; Abdullah; Huey Long; Ghandi; Alexander of Yugoslavia; Trotsky; JFK/RFK.

1. (1) Enters room quickly but quietly; (2) Stands in doorway
2. (2) Opens fire on first subject to react. Swings across group toward center of mass. Times burst to empty magazine at end of swing.
(1) Covers group to prevent individual dangerous reactions, if necessary, fires individual bursts of 3 rounds.
3. (2) Finishes burst. Commands "Shift." Drops back through door. Replaces empty magazine. Covers corridor. (1) On command "shift", opens fire on opposite side of target, swings one burst across group.
4. (1) Finishes burst. Commands "shift". Drops back through door. Replaces magazine. Covers corridor. (2) On command, "shift", re-enters room. Covers group: kills survivors with two-round bursts. Leaves propaganda.
5. (2) Leaves room. Commands "GO". Covers rear with nearly full magazine. (1) On command "GO", leads withdrawal, covering front with full magazine. 6.

Related Webs:  http://www.anusha.com/ciastudy.htm CIA Study of Assassination
 http://www.gwu.edu/-nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB4/ CIA & Assassinations: The Guatemala 1954 Documents

VI. 19 : ATTACKS ON EQUIPMENT - Miscellaneous Considerations:
a) CONVEYORS - Construction & mining operations frequently use conveyor belt systems to move & sort material. The belts are similar in composition to automobile tires, with thick rubber reinforced by fiber cords. The simplest form of sabotage is slashing with a sharp, thin-bladed knife. A common hardware store item, the utility knife, is ideal. Since cuts that run straight across the belt are easily repaired, all your slashes should be at an angle, & as long as you can make them. Do not attempt to cut completely through the belt. A number of deep cuts at different points will cause the belt to deteriorate rapidly under use. Breakdown & early replacement become necessary.

b). HACKSAWS - A good way to damage equipment is by hacksawing. Large hacksawing jobs become faster & quieter with the use of cutting oil. An assistant who maintains a stream of oil on the blade makes large cutting jobs possible. Use top of the line hacksaw blades & new horizons in sabotage emerge.
c). TAKE A RIDE - If you know what you are doing, an effective way to destroy a piece of heavy equipment is to take it for a ride. Drive a bulldozer off a cliff into "Lake" Powell. In 1989, someone drove a 38,000 pound, $70,000 log loader off a steep road in the Nantahala National Forest
d.) WRENCHES & SCREWDRIVERS - With these, remove all fittings, bolts, plugs, filters, large hoses, pumps, & such. After damaging or disposing of the extracted items, damage the threadings & sides of the various orifices. Then for good measure throw sand or dirt in all of them.
e.). TURKEY BASTER - use a common kitchen turkey baster to suck acid out of a battery & squirt it into the fuel system. Two squirts should do.
f.). ACID - Any acid corrosive to metal does much damage if left overnight or longer in the delicate parts of an engine. A couple of quarts or more poured into the carburetor would probably get through to the pistons & rings & would certainly mess up everything in between! Some of the advantages of acids are quietness, relatively instant damage, & easy availability. Some potential acids to use: Hydrochloric - available at chemical suppliers. Don't breathe the fumes; Muriatic - just half-strength hydrochloric acid, used in swimming pool water & as metal etch, rust remover, etc. Look for this at hardware stores, swimming pool suppliers, auto body & repair suppliers, etc; 4 Sulfuric - used in car batteries. Buy from chemical suppliers or auto parts stores. In a pinch, one might use a machine's own battery juice. Upon reaction with metal, the fumes of many acids are poisonous. Avoid breathing acid fumes. Wear rubber gloves & goggles.
g.). CROSS BOW - If heavy equipment or trucks are parked inside a fenced, locked compound, it is possible, from outside the fence, to shoot metal bolts (arrows) from cross bows into the radiators. For a bolt costing two bucks, several hundred dollars worth of damage can be done.
h.). RADIO CABLE PIN - Logging trucks, other vehicles & heavy equipment often are equipped with CB or other two-way radios. These are easily sabotaged with a simple straight pin (as used in sewing). Stick the pin through the Coax cable & snip off the exposed parts of the pin with wire cutters. The radio will short out when used, but the cause will not be apparent. Several radios may be replaced before the cable is checked. The Coax cable is a special round cable used for CBs. It has both an inner & an outer conductor. Both must be touched with the pin to short out the cable. This can be done by aiming the pin at the center of the cable.
FIELD NOTE - Use caution & appropriate gloves, eye & facial protection (safety glasses/goggles) when cutting hoses or tubing or removing filler caps or otherwise gaining entry to pressurized systems (cooling & hydraulic systems). Diesel engines run hot & there may be pressure in those systems several hours after the machine is shut off. Be aware that light reflected from safety glasses or goggles may be visible far away.
MAINTENANCE FACILITIES - If you can gain access to garages, fuel trucks, or maintenance yards, contaminate any fuel & oil you find. Add water to diesel & dirt & sand to oil. Put diesel into any lubricating oils you find. Remember that guards often hang around garages & maintenance yards.
Mines - Many mines are on a shaky financial footing, spiking roads to cause flat tires, plugging culverts to wash out newly bulldozed roads, & midnight maintenance on heavy equipment & trucks can cause crippling financial losses to a small or medium-sized operator, & sometimes cause a major company to abandon a project. The major asset many miners have is their bulldozer which they use with reckless abandon.

Often neglected by insurgents are the fleets of haul trucks used in earth moving, logging & construction operations. Frequently these trucks are parked in a more secure area than the other heavy equipment. Many truck hoods are made of lightweight fiberglass & are easily opened. Handles, & hood ornaments, are used to open hoods for access to the engine. (See FIGURE VI. 20.2) Look closely at a truck, as if simply curious, before attempting clandestine access. The engines in these trucks are the same or similar to the diesel power; plants found in heavy equipment, so the same principles of introducing abrasives apply here. They also have large numbers of tires waiting to be flattened. Tamper with the air hoses or electrical wires that connect truck & trailer only if you wish to cause injury & fear among truckers. These operate safety equipment, & careless drivers (the majority) who don't check their vehicles thoroughly before heading out in the morning can cause serious accidents.

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM - Cut hoses with cable cutters or bolt cutters (a knife won't work because of steel reinforcements in the hoses). Smash brake system, hydraulic pistons & fittings with a sledge.
FUEL SYSTEM - Smash fuel injectors with a sledge & steel bar. These are expensive & very hard to remove when effectively smashed "in situ."
TIRES - Use a sharp knife blade (or hacksaw) to puncture the sidewalls of tires. A good sized cut is not reparable, & those large tires are expensive. If you use a folding pocket knife, it should have a good lock to prevent it from closing on your hand while you are slicing through the tough sides of a tire. Remember that a knife blade cut can be matched back to a blade as evidence. Don't use your favorite blade or a good quality knife you would hesitate to throw away if circumstances demanded proper disposal of evidence. You can use a chisel to start the break in the sidewall of a large tire, & then insert a knife. Be careful when puncturing high-pressure tires.
ABRASIVES FOR EQUIPMENT: Sandblasting aggregates have potential for equipment saboteurs. A product named "Black Beauty sells for about $6 per 100-lb. bag at industrial supply outlets. While not as hard as quartz, it should still wear metal quickly. It also flows easily, & may camouflage better in dirty oil because of its dark color. The OSS, during World War II created a clever device to destroy engines. It was called a "Caccolube," & consisted of a condom filled with abrasive powders & crushed walnuts. It was dropped into an engine crankcase. The OSS manual reported that the condom would deteriorate after the engine was started & after 30 or 50 miles the engine would be damaged beyond repair. Pouring sand into the oil reservoir of a big yellow machine can be a difficult endeavor, as you try to stuff grit into a one inch hole inside a cramped engine compartment. Spills lead to telltale signs of tampering, & tight spots lead general frustrations for the midnight mechanic. To remedy this try the sand bong. At a hardware store buy a large common household funnel & 2 feet of clear plastic tubing which will fit snugly over the end of the funnel Bring this contraption on site with you & stick the open end of the tube deep down inside the oil intake of the machine to be serviced. Hold the funnel high & outside the engine compartment; pour fine, dry sand or other grit into the funnel, down the hose, & deep into the oil. Clean the oil off the tubing with rag, stuff it all into a plastic bag, & put that into a day pack when you are finished & ready to leave. This method is simple, easy, & leaves no sand stains. The only problem is the incriminating evidence of carrying this plumbing with you.
High-pressure, water-filled tires on heavy equipment are dangerous & are better left alone. You can also cut valve stems, or even pull the valve stem out with a pair of pliers. Large tires on heavy equipment may have metal valve stems, which could be cut with bolt cutters. Or chop off the valve stems with hammer & chisel.
COOLING SYSTEM - Common table salt & drain-opening compounds like "Drano" will cause corrosion inside an engine. Introduce through the radiator cap. A small amount will not do, as these big engines have large coolant capacities. The engine must be cold before you remove the radiator cap. Dry rice can be added to a radiator as well. The small grains distribute throughout the system & when they swell with water, the system becomes thoroughly constipated. Or cut a #6 rebar with a chisel point & ram it into the usually accessible radiator. You can do this quickly & comparatively quietly, if you cover all but the six inches at the point of the rebar with rubber or hose to deaden the sound.
OTHER CONTAMINANTS - Each system of a machine requires different fluids to insure proper operation. The wrong viscosity of oil in the hydraulic system can cause serious damage. Diesel oil or gasoline added to lubricating oil will cause oxidation & loss of lubrication. Gasoline in excess of 90 octane will do serious engine damage if added to diesel fuel. Even simple overfilling of transmission fluid or engine oil can cause damage through lack of effective lubrication. A little anti-freeze/coolant (like you put in your car's radiator) will destroy main bearings in short order if put in the engine oil.
WATER - If sand is not handy, you can add water to either the oil or diesel fuel. One advantage of water is that it can be poured down the dipstick spout.
SUGAR - Sugar or Karo syrup in the fuel does little more than clog the filters & is a relatively worthless method of sabotage.
BOLT CUTTERS - Besides destroying the hydraulic system, a good pair of bolt cutters (at least 24" long) can be used to: Cut locks to gain access; Cut through or damage bolts, gauges, clamps, rods, linkages, pipes, hoses, hose fittings, grease fittings, wires, & anything else that can be fit between a bolt cutter's jaws. (Think of the machinery as food for hungry bolt cutters.) It is amazing how much can be cut on most machines. With the heavy jaws of the bolt cutters, smash windows, mirrors, headlights, taillights, reflectors, display panels, gauges, the front of the radiator,
To disable cars & trucks quickly & easily, press a large raw potato into the end of the exhaust pipe so that it forms a plug inside the pipe. Use a stick to force the plug in & out of sight. When the driver starts the motor, it will cough & quit. After about three days, the potato will shrink & be blown out if the vehicle is started. This technique has been used since World_ War II & can baffle even skilled mechanics.

There are two main advantages of burning machinery & heavy equipment: It can utterly destroy the bulldozer, yarder, or whatever. And, a machine that has its engine compartment, oil intake, & so on protected by locks can still be burned.
Disadvantages include:
1) It is difficult to achieve a hot enough & extensive enough fire. 2) A fire quickly attracts attention.
Fire is a tool. It can be your friend if you respect its power or your foe if you don't.
Nothing does the amount of damage that fire can. Be sure that you follow security precautions. Tell no one & leave no evidence.
Diesel fuel, unlike gasoline, is not explosive. It is denser than gasoline & burns longer but not as hot. It is much safer to use but much more difficult to ignite-especially in cold weather. It sometimes will not even ignite when a match is held to it. A Molotov cocktail can be used to ignite diesel, but a safer way would be to simply use a rag soaked in solvent, or denatured alcohol, which readily burns but is not explosive. (Rubbing alcohol does not readily burn.)
Preparing A Machine For Burning
To keep the diesel fuel from running off the bulldozer or other object to be burned, soak rags (cotton are better than synthetics) in diesel fuel. Other absorbent materials-like sawdust or straw-can also be used. Stuff the soaked rags in the engine if it is accessible, under exposed wiring, hoses, & gauges, in treads or around tires, & in the cab under the dash. As little as 2 gallons of diesel may be enough if used in this way. Place the rag soaked in solvent alcohol on the diesel-soaked rags & light it.
Getting Diesel Fuel
An ideal place to get diesel fuel is right out of the machine you are about to burn. Use a short piece of hose to siphon fuel onto the machine, into a container, or onto nearby machines. Soak everything well. If there is a tank of diesel on site (there often is), cut the padlock off with a large set of bolt cutters, & use a 12 inch crescent wrench (if necessary) to open the valve clockwise. Be careful as the fuel may be under pressure & could spray out of the valve. You can also bring your own diesel fuel (or kerosene which has similar burning properties) in plastic jugs (don't fill them all the way or they may leak). Put the empty jugs where they will burn along with everything else. Or you can take the drain plug out of the fuel tank on the machine to be burned, drain the tank under the machine, & light it. DO THIS ONLY WITH DIESEL FUEL WHICH IS NON-EXPLOSIVE & NOT WITH GASOLINE (OR DILLUTE GAOLINE WITH DIESEL).
If you get diesel fuel on you, you will smell like diesel for a long time. This could be incriminating. Wear an old pair of coveralls (from Goodwill) which you can safely dispose of after the action. Don't use rags from your home because they might be traceable. Thrift stores are a good source.
Equipment & preparation: You need gallon plastic milk jugs with screw on lids. One gallon purified water jugs work well. Rinse out the jugs & let them dry. Wash off any finger prints. Purchase kerosene from a busy gas station (out of town if possible) using an approved gasoline container. Fill the jugs almost all the way, but leave an inch or 2 of space for fumes to gather at the top so the jugs don't leak. You also need one spare, fuel filled jug for every 4 incendiaries. You need one thick rectangular household sponge for each incendiary you will be using. Set them on their sides & punch 2 deep holes in each for the igniters. For a dependable ignition delay, take a stick of incense & attach wooden matches to it near the stick end. Tie them on tight with string or use a few rubber bands. Make 2 for each incendiary plus a few extra. The time delay can be anywhere from 15-45 minutes & will vary according to many circumstances including the temperature & wind. Make sure you test one before so you know approximately how long it will take before the matches ignite.
Construction & ignition: The incendiary devices are transported in 3 separate pieces: the jugs, the sponges, & the timed igniters. One gallon milk jugs are perfect because they can easily be carried using their handles & they also hold a lot of fuel. Place an incendiary jug in the location you want it to burn & stuff a sponge through the handle of the plastic jug. Douse the area with kerosene from one of the extra jugs making sure to saturate the sponge. Light the timed igniters a safe distance from any fuel or incendiaries & then stick 2 incense timers into the pre-punched holes in the fuel soaked sponge one on either side of the handle. When the incense burns down to the match heads, it will ignite them & they will in turn ignite the sponge which will melt the jug & finally ignite the fuel. Sound Complicated? It really isn't. A very simple way to torch a car is just to spread a sheet over it & then pour flammable liquid on the sheet. Ignite it with a fireplace lighter or long stick so you don't catch yourself on fire. This should only be used when you need to hit & run. Get away quick!
TIPS: An important thing to check is that the heads of the matches on the incense delays are very close to the fuel soaked sponge. If you have too much of a gap the flame from the matches will not light the sponge & all your work will have been for nothing. If you need to, the incense igniters can be skipped & the sponges can be lit directly. Bring a few extra lighters in case one malfunctions.
Burning a large metallic object requires dousing it with a flammable fluid. Gasoline is explosive & dangerous to work with. Using gasoline to start a fire risks self-immolation. Gasoline drips off surfaces & won't stay where it is poured. Mixed with soap flakes (Ivory Snow, not a detergent) gasoline turns into jellied gasoline. The classic method uses jellied gasoline in a Molotov cocktail, flakes with a denatured alcohol-soaked rag stuffed in the mouth of the bottle. The end of the rag outside of the bottle is lit & the Molotov is immediately thrown against the target from as far away as possible. The bottle shatters upon impact & the gasoline ignites & relatively little damage may be done. If the targeted machine is previously soaked in diesel fuel or, more dangerously, jellied gasoline, complete destruction is far more likely. A Molotov cocktail is a potent, dangerous & fun tool. Recycle those old bottles!
Delayed Ignition
There are a number of simple ways to light a fire after you are safely away from the scene. Experiment with any delayed ignition technique several times before using it to burn a machine or other target. One such method is the use of SCORE hair dressing & swimming pool cleaner. A similar delayed ignition method is to pour brake fluid over swimming pool cleaner. After several minutes (perhaps as many as 15) the mix should burst into flames. Experimentation is necessary to determine the proper quantities of each for the optimum delay. One mix has been field tested: Put 3 tsp. of dry chlorinator in a paper cup & cover it with 2 tsp. of brake fluid. The delay time is about one & a half minutes. If you cool the brake fluid first, there will be a greater delay in ignition. Using warm brake fluid causes less delay. Brake fluid is cheaper than SCORE.
HTH swimming pool cleaner will spontaneously combust with motor oil. Try putting it into the oil fill cap of an engine sometime. The oxidation will destroy the lubrication integrity of the oil. HTH pool chlorine is nasty stuff & causes chlorine burns in the lungs if inhaled. Working with it at night or under stressful conditions could be disastrous.
3. A simple effective time fuse can be made with a cigarette, a book of matches, & a rubber band. Spread the heads of the 2 lines of matches apart, light the cigarette, put it between the lines of match heads, close the match book, & put the rubber band around it to hold it shut. The time delay can be adjusted up to 7 minutes by how much of the cigarette has to burn before it lights the matches. In case this time fuse fails, you don't want your fingerprints on the book of matches. Get your book matches from a hotel, bar, or restaurant where a basket of match books with advertising is displayed. Pick up several books at once, touching only the two on the end of the stack. In this way only the end books have your prints/DNA.
4. Another delayed-ignition method is to use a gag candle for birthday cakes-one that can't be blown out once it is lit. Make a hole in a ping-pong ball the diameter of the candle. Put the candle in the hole so that most of it is above the surface of the ping-pong ball. Place the device where ignition is wanted. Light the candle. When the candle burns down to it, the ping-pong ball, being highly flammable, is supposed to burn fiercely (fill ball part way with gas or diesel mix).
5. A more dependable delayed fuse than SCORE can be made as follows: Empty the powder out of 5 shotgun shells into a small paper matchbox. Cut a notch vertically in the middle of one end of the box, big enough to hold a cigarette. In the other end, cut a larger notch. Now soak a long strip of rag in diesel or kerosene (or in solvent alcohol). It should be soaked lightly so that it will not drench the gunpowder. At the work site, place one end of the rag through the larger notch & into the gunpowder at that end of the box. Then lay the rag out over to the object to be burned. In the smaller notch at the other end of the box, place a burning, long, unfiltered cigarette so that the non-burning end just barely pokes through the notch into the gunpowder. You now have a good 8 to 15 minutes to vacate the area, the exact time depending on the kind & length of cigarette, wind, & humidity.

-- "I fully approve of it & congratulate the people who carried it out....Setting fire to a playground of the prosperous was a brave & ecological last resort (no pun intended)." - Ted Kaczynski, convicted Unabomber, on the arson of the Vail Ski resort & the insurgent bombings in Taba, Egypt (Sinai), 2004.

VI. 22 : Attacks on Shopping Malls, Department Stores & Buildings:
Dingles department store (London) Christmas 1988. Sprinkler systems malfunction (sabotage) resulted in millions in water damage.
Mini Timed Incendiary Devices.
These devices are designed to switch on a large store's sprinkler system. You can see the sprinklers on the ceiling which are triggered off by fire & smoke. It is safe for a fire to be started in the store. The sprinklers put the fire out & the water floods the store & causes extensive water damage. We don't break into the store in the middle of the night, we place an incendiary device in the store during shopping hours, under something inflammable. A device is placed under an armchair or a sofa on the top floor, the result of which is that all the floors underneath are flooded. If stores start checking under their sofas after closing, place them out of sight under anything that is combustible & not always on the top floor. The devices we put in stores are quite different from those we use to destroy vehicles. The one for the stores has a 12 hour timing device.
(See the Diagram VI. 22.3)
For a stores' device use an empty cigarette pack (box-type or a bit larger) with holes punched in both sides for ventilation. The inside is painted with nail polish. Then take a piece of thin card cut to fit inside the cigarette box & punch holes in it & coat it with nail polish. Super glue the battery to the card along with pieces of firelighter covered in nail polish (to seal in the fumes). Take a 21 w bulb (a car reversing light). The glass of the bulb is broken by heating with a lighter & then placing in cold water (careful not to damage the filament). Then solder one of the wires from an ordinary battery snap (the type used in calculators & small radios etc.) to the end of the bulb nipple. A spare piece of similar wire is soldered to the side of the bulb (the side of the bulb is also a contact). Soldering is as easy as changing a fuse in a plug. A small soldering iron is switched on, the wire is placed against the nipple & the iron is then placed so it touches the end of the wire & heats it & the nipple. The solder is pressed against the soldering iron & allowed to melt & run down the side of the nipple. The iron & solder are removed but the wire must be held in place covered in solder until it hardens. The same procedure is followed when soldering the spare wire to the side of the bulb. Onto the 2 ends of wire from the battery snap & bulb, solder some single strand fine wire that is stiff enough to be formed into a bridge shape & then bend the other wire upright. Cut a piece of bin liner (thin paper bag) to the same size as one of the pieces of firelighter. The slip of bin liner is then coated on both sides with nail varnish & placed on top of a piece of firelighter so it sticks to it. Super glue the bulb to an adjoining piece of firelighter so the filament is touching the slip of varnish covered bin liner. More varnish is painted on the bin liner around the filament & the heads of the strike anywhere matches (not safety matches). Pieces of match head are cut off with a razor blade & placed in the wet varnish on the bin liner so they are also touching the filament.
Take the watch, remove the crystal (glass or plastic lens) & super glue the 2 pieces of the formed wire, the bridge & the upright, so that the bridge is between the figures 1 & 3 on the watch. The upright is glued so that it is slightly closer to the centre of the watch in the middle of the bridge but not quite touching it. The height of the bridge is determined by the length of the minute & second hands on the watch, the device works when the hour hand pushes the upright against the bridge & completes the circuit, so the minute & second hands have to be bent out of the way so that as they go round & round they don't push the upright against the bridge.
By careful use of a pair of tweezers, bend the second & minute hands first upright & then out so that the ends of the second & minute hand pass over the bridge & upright (or try to cut them off carefully with wire cutters). The hour hand is pointed to 3 o'clock (so that it is past the bridge & upright) then the watch is wound up & superglued to the card. Everything used in the device is kept free of fingerprints. Gloves must be worn during the entire construction process. After all the soldering is done you should file all traces of solder from the tip of soldering iron. When finished dispose of any excess glue, cardboard, wire, nail polish, solder, glass in a garbage other than your own. The snap is not connected to the battery until we get to the store & visit the toilet. Even if it were to fall over & set the device off it only produces a small flame for 10 - 15 seconds which wouldn't do any harm - but it would look odd disposing of a cigarette box with a flame coming out of the punched holes in the side. The devices are placed in the stores between 3pm & closing as they have about 9 or 10 hours & ignite after midnight. Specific care must be taken regarding in-store undercover security guards & security cameras (both on the lookout for shoplifters). Holiday seasons when the shops are fullest is an ideal time for placement of devices. One problem of this simple set up is that some watches' hour hands are unable to push the upright against the bridge. To cover for this 2 or 3 devices are planted in the store. A successful alternative is to use a small travelers alarm clock, dispense with the cigarette box & make a larger box from card & glue to take the small clock. Always test your devices before hand.

Electronically Timed Incendiary Igniter.
This timing device is constructed from an ordinary plug in the wall type alarm clock that has a 9 volt battery backup.
Tools required: Soldering Iron; Drill & drill bits; Wire cutters; Volt meter; Philips screw driver;
Materials per device:
(1) electric alarm clock with 9 volt battery backup
(1) 12 volt REED relay (radio shack part # 275233)
(1 small spool) solder
(1 small spool) insulated wire between 18 & 24 gauge
(1) 12 volt LED with integrated resistor
(1) 1156 tail light bulb (12volt)
(1) diode
(1) 9 volt battery
(1) 9 volt battery plug connector (optional)
(1) sheet fine sand paper
(1 tube) super glue

Construction: 1. With the clock unplugged, remove any obvious serial #s. Use the screw driver to remove the 3 or 4 screws holding the clock together. Gently separate the 2 halves. In one half there will be a metal disk about the size of a 25 cent piece with 2 wires going to it. This is the speaker. Cut both wires & strip the ends.
2. Plug the clock in, set the alarm for one minute & attach the 9 volt battery. Now unplug the clock. The display will turn off & the alarm will revert to battery power. Using the volt meter check which of the two leads STARTS with NO POWER & then suddenly registers power. This is a trigger wire for the relay. After unplugging the battery, cut the other wire to get it out of the way.
CAUTION : Some of the clocks tested had one lead that always had power.
3. The relay has 4 posts -- 3 on one side & one on the other. It may be necessary to carefully bend some of the posts to make soldering easier. Solder a diode from the solitary post to the post that the trigger will be connected to. The stripped end should be connected to the same post that the trigger wire is connected to. Using the sand paper remove lot # from diode. Solder a 10 inch wire to the solitary post. This will eventually lead to the tail light.
4. Solder a 3 inch lead to the positive end of the LED (usually the longer of the 2 posts, check the package). It may be necessary to carefully bend the posts. Then attach the lead to the solitary post on the relay. Solder another 3 inch lead to the negative side of the LED & attach this wire to the post opposite the one the diode is attached to.
Note the orientation of the diode in the diagram. Diodes conduct electricity in one direction ONLY. This is also true of the LED (light emitting diode).
5. Cut the wires to the 9 volt battery plug close to the plug & strip the ends. Attach the black wire to the post opposite the diode & the red wire to the middle post (opposite the solitary post).
6. Solder an 11 inch wire to the post opposite the diode. This will eventually lead to the tail light.
7. Either lengthen the clipped wires on the 9 volt plug to 4 inches or replace it (easier). The black wire should be attached to the post opposite the diode. The red wire should be attached to the center post opposite the solitary post.
8. Finally, attach the trigger wire from the clock to the post opposite all the ground (black) wires. Push the 9 volt plug back through its hole.
9. On the clock, drill one hole large enough for the LED to peek through. Drill 6 more holes only slightly bigger than the wire going to the tail light.
10. Super glue (gently the welds are fragile) the relay inside the clock. There is usually space somewhere in there. Super glue the LED into its hole.
11. Weave the first wire through the three holes passing up through the first hole down through the second & back out through the third. This will insure that if the wire is pulled it will not break the fragile welds. Repeat for second wire. After glue has dried, reassemble the clock. Testing : Set alarm & see if volt meter registers. When alarm triggers the relay the relay will LOCK OPEN sending current to the voltmeter. To deactivate you must remove the battery. Note that LED should have lit up when circuit was triggered. In the field, if LED is lit, DO NOT ATTACH TAIL LIGHT - THIS WILL CAUSE IMMEDIATE IGNITION. Test using actual bulb setup under same time & temperature conditions. Clocks varied greatly with respect to the amount of current drawn. As temperature drops, so does battery life.
Time Delayed Incendiary Devices
This is another simple electrically timed incendiary device for use in both buildings & vehicles. All you need is a mechanical kitchen timer, a brand new 9v battery (w/cap), an automobile backup light bulb, some thin electrical wire, some strike anywhere matches & a soldering iron First you break off glass on the bulb so as to expose the filament, being careful not to break it. Heating the glass with a lighter & then touching it to cold water usually does the trick. (Instead of a light bulb you may want to use a model rocket engine igniter.)Now with your soldering iron, attach one wire from the battery cap to the tip of the bulb, & then solder a 6-8 inch length of wire to the metal side of the bulb's base. (When the other tip of this wire is connected to the second wire from the battery cap/battery, the circuit will be complete & the matches will ignite ... that's the general idea.). Take the kitchen timer & glue a toothpick or match stick to the rotating pointer, in effect extending the circumference of the rotation. Glue the two loose ends of the wire to the non-moving section of the timer at the 12 - o'clock position, so that the toothpick on the pointer will connect the two wires when it winds down to zero. (Make sure not to connect the battery until you are about to set the timer). Now you can set your timer for up to an hour & leave. You will need a little more to make your fire go. Suggestions include attaching match heads to the igniter & putting it in a pile of fire-starter gel, next to a plastic bag of starter fluid in the middle of a pile of charcoal, or in a small packet containing a mixture of half sodium chlorate (weed killer) or potassium nitrate (saltpeter) & half white granulated sugar. You can help along your fire by placing your device on top of or beside a plastic container of any flammable liquid (kerosene/gasoline/etc.).
New Ideas: Could also use a larger fire starter inside a generic looking box (Kleenex or condoms or a baby bottle).

VI. 23 : HOW TO SINK SHIPS ( http://animalliberation.net/library/scuttle.html)
Insertion - The critical factor in sinking a ship is being able to sneak aboard it undetected. If you can do that, you can bring the ship down. The actual mechanics of sinking the ship are not nearly as difficult as locating the ship & boarding it undetected. All ships come to dock for repairs & preparation for the next season. This is when you can sneak aboard the ship for scuttling. There will be times when no one is on board the ship. Do not try to scuttle a ship when someone is aboard it. They will detect you.
Typically, nights & holidays are the best times to secretly board a ship. The ships may be moored next to the dock, or anchored out at harbor. You may need a collapsible kayak to get at it. Or you may have to borrow/steal a rowboat. Determining when no one is aboard may require much observation. in some cases when we have found the boat, we have determined immediately that no one was aboard (for example, no tracks in the snow on or around the ship). We have then gone in & sunk the ship on the spot. Each situation is different. With increased observation, you run the risk of being observed yourself & blowing your cover. If they become suspicious of you, you will not be able to sink the ship. Surprise is everything. At a certain point, you must decide whether the action is feasible or not. If you think it is, then go for it.
14 Steps To Sink a Ship.
Step 1. Board The Ship Undetected & then hide yourself & your tools.
Wear rubber gloves at all times & do not take them off. You can hide in the stairwells, in the middle of the gear stacked on deck, or wherever. You could carry a tarp & hide under it. Then wait. For 10 or 15 minutes, do not move. If someone has seen you board the ship, this will give them the time to come searching for you, & you will find out if you have been seen or not. If they are going to catch you, it is much better that they do so while you are just trespassing, rather than sabotaging. The penalties are not nearly so severe. You should have a half-bottle of hard liquor with you. Take a swig or two so that you have booze on your breath. If they catch you, try to pass yourself off as just another drunk sailor in port. In many port towns, these are common. If you ink you are about to be caught, try to dump your tool bag in to the water. If they find both you & the bag, your tool bag will be very incriminating.
Step 2. Get Into The Engine Room
- You may have to cut or pick locks, use pry bars, or even use a cutting torch to get in. Often, though, the doors are wide open. Typically, the entrance to the engine room is near the stem, at the bottom of the ship. Its door may be locked, but you can open its lock in privacy. The engine room is an oily, toxic-waste filled area. You will probably get dirty with the rust & oil in this room.
Step 3. Find The Sea Water Intake Valve
- Large ocean-going ships have salt water intake valves & piping. These ships need salt water for deck cleansing, fire fighting, & for cooling their diesel engines. There are no air-cooled diesel engines out at sea. Usually, the coolant radiator from the diesel engine is bathed in a steady stream of cool sea water. The best way to find the sea water intake valve is to follow the piping. Ocean-going ships typically have 5 different types of plumbing - for fresh water, salt water, fuel oil, engine oil, & hydraulic fluid. The salt water pipes are generally the thickest. The sea water intake valve is almost always located in the engine room. Keep following the pipes to the thickest one that appears to be attached to the side of the bottom of the ship. Here is where the sea water enters the ship. Ships with keel-cooling systems are exceptions. Keel-cooling ships pump their engine coolant directly into cooling pipes attached to the keel (outside) of the ship. They do not use internal heat exchange with salt water. These ships typically stay in colder waters. Norwegian whalers use keel-cooling systems. They still need sea water for deck cleaning & fire fighting, however, so they do have salt water intake systems. Their sea water intakes are not as large, but they are plenty big for scuttling. The Norwegian pirate whaling ship, the Nybrena, which sank on December 27, 1992, had a keel-cooling system.
Step 4. Close The Sea Water Intake Valve
- You need to close this so that you can cut off the pressure to the piping. If the ship is in dock for any amount of time, they should have closed the valve already. But we have boarded ships & found the valve left open. We have had to shut the valve, do our work, & then reopen the valve to sink the ship.
Step 5. Remove The Handle From The Valve -
We take the handle off so that if they find the ship in the process of sinking, they cannot easily shut off the valve. The valve handle may look either like a steering wheel or a lever type handle. Remove the retaining nut holding the handle on, then pull the handle off. Hide the handle somewhere away from the valve stem. That leaves just the valve stem protruding outward from the valve.
Step 6. Disconnect The Piping Coming Out Of The Valve
- Now that you have closed the valve, you have removed the water pressure from the system & you can work more easily. Use your pipe wrench, crescent wrench, & vise grips to remove the pipe or plating near the intake valve. The larger the pipe you remove, the better. You will have to improvise here. Study the pipe & find one that you can take off. Be prepared for spraying water when you are taking the bolts off. This is water already in the system which you are now bleeding out. It will stop draining shortly. Do not just loosen the pipe. Take all the bolts off & remove it. Carry the pipe away from where you disconnected it.
Step 7. Gather All Your Tools & Put Them Back In Your Bag
- Gather everything that you brought aboard. Everything. You want to be ready to make a quick exit.
Step 8. Open The Salt Water Intake Valve With Your Pipe Wrench
- This is the moment you have been waiting for. Put your pipe wrench on the valve stem & open the valve. Salt water should begin spraying all over the place. Keep turning the valve stem until the valve is wide open. (The ship has now hit the fan!) Then lean on the pipe wrench & push it as hard as you can. Try to break the valve while it is locked wide open, so that no one will be able to close it before the boat sinks.
Step 9. Bash The Valve Stem With The Pipe Wrench
Hit it hard with the pipe wrench to try to bend it out of true & further lock the valve wide open. While you are doing this, the engine room will be flooding all around you. Stay calm & just do it.
Step 10. Take Everything You Brought With You Out Of The Engine Room ; Leave no material evidence.
Step 11. Tear Gas The Engine Room
- If you have a tear gas canister, just before you step out of the engine room door, open the canister & set it up high someplace. Do not throw the tear gas into the incoming sea water - it will considerably reduce its effectiveness. Just trigger the canister & set it near the door. Needless to say, you should shut your eyes & hold your breath while you do this. Or put on a gas mask. Then quickly shut the engine room door.
Step 12. Put A Heavy-Duty, Long-Handled Lock On Both The Engine Room & The Main Entrance Doors
If they discover their ship is sinking, they will try to board & pump it out. We use the locks & tear gas to buy time. When a ship gets full enough of water, it hits a critical mass & cannot be rescued. The tear gas & locks help get to this point. Locks must have a long locking loop on them. These doors are made of thick metal & the locking arm of the lock will have to travel through thick metal before it can catch.
Step 13. Ditch The Tools Overboard
- Ease them into the water with a rope on the bag. Do not throw them in; someone could hear the splash of a thirty-kilo bag hitting the water.
Step 14. Get The Hell Out!
- You have two basic choices: Either go underground at a safe house, or immediately leave the country. Our experience is that it is best to leave. It may take them twelve hours to figure out that someone has sabotaged them. By then, you can be long gone. As soon as you are safely away from the ship, take off & dispose of everything that you have worn onto the ship, including your shoes. Remember that your rubber gloves will have a perfect set of fingerprints inside. If possible, melt them; otherwise, dispose of them securely. Then wash yourself. Remove all of the diesel fuel & salt water. Put on clean clothes. Look like a tourist or businessperson.

Homemade Mortars - boiling ball (9-11 pound?) with 3 ounces of (coarse) blackpowder, 8.5 inch bore (heavy gauge steel). The charge chamber is placed in the middle (bottom) of pipe - like a circle inside of a circle - with some kind of fuse hole drilled (chambered). Shoots ball 600 yards at 500-600 fps at about a 45 degree angle - they rested it on a chair to shoot it. - ww.docsmachine.com/nonPB/mortar
The FARC Guerrillas in Colombia copied a homemade mortar design adapted from the IRA Barracks Buster. Details are rare on either design, but it is claimed that three foot by 6 inch gas cylinders are shot out of steel tubes using explosives as the propellant. The gas cylinders are filled with explosives & shrapnel. Accuracy is poor though they have been used effectively.
VALVE CORE EXTRACTOR - inexpensive tool known as a "valve core extractor" provides an alternative method for flattening tires. Remove the cap from the valve stem, insert tool into the stem, twist until you feel the tool engage the valve core. Screw (counterclockwise) the valve core & throw it in the bushes. Done to all the tires on a vehicle this would immobilize it, without permanently damaging the tires.
EYES OF NIGHT Flashlights - Military studies show that blue filters are better than red to illuminate without destroying night vision & they cannot be seen at distance as well as red light (though a red filter can make the brown contour lines on a topographic map invisible). Each member of the team should carry two flashlights-one medium & one small. A flashlight with a plug-in headlamp attachment may be useful when you need both hands for work. With this type of headlamp, the battery case can be kept in an inside pocket, warmed by body heat, for longer battery life. This can be important for cold weather operations.

Standard Optics - Binoculars & spotting scopes can help at night, especially for observing a well-lit area. At least a 50 mm objective lens (the lens closest to the object you re viewing) is needed for optimal light gathering qualities. Some of the better -military surplus houses sell special binoculars designed for night use. On moonlit nights in open country, deserts, & in snow, binoculars are quite effective. Remember, bright moonlight can reflect off binocular lenses & promise your position. Such reflections are very visible through "starlight" terns.
Infrared Spotting Scope - This device dates back to World War II. It consists of a battery-powered light that emits infrared light (invisible to the unaided eye), &, mounted below, an image converter tube that allows the user to see what the spotlight is illuminating.
Starlight Scope - Vietnam-era development uses a battery powered scope to amplify the light from moon, stars & ambient city light. The first generation units lack an anti-blooming feature to shut the unit down if light levels suddenly get high enough to damage the costly image intensification tube. A starlight scope can be used beyond the range of infrared. The device is "passive" & does not rely on projecting a beam at an area or object to be observed. With a starlight scope you can detect the presence of an infrared device, since the scope converts invisible infrared light to visible light. Conversely, neither can another starlight scope detect a starlight scope.
NIGHT MOVES: Night Vision Technology
Seeing in the dark was once the province of owls & other night creatures, but with improved technology, Soldiers are masters of the night. Until recently, night fighting was done at great risk & not just because of things that go bump in the night. Magnesium parachute flares were the only light available (other than the moon & stars). Magnesium flares provided light but gave away your position & intentions. This isn't an issue in a defensive situation (if you are under attack, the enemy obviously knows where you are), it is a limiting factor in conducting offensive operations.
To get around this limitation night vision equipment was developed to allow the detection of a person standing over 200 yards (183 m) away on a pitch-black night. Owls would be jealous of that sensitivity.
NVDs are electrically powered image enhancing devices which use an image enhancing tube to convert a low light photo-image into an electronic one, & then back into an enhanced photo-electric image. The low-light image (made up of reflected visible & near infrared photons) is first captured by the objective lens & then focused into the image intensifier tube. On the objective side of the tube is a photo cathode that converts the photons striking it into electrons. These electrons, accelerated & multiplied by an energized anode inside the tube, move down the tube until they strike a phosphor screen at the far end of the tube. The phosphors, once energized by the electron's electrical charge, emit green photons that are passed through the ocular lens at the rear of the tube, which is used by the device operator to magnify & focus the image.
First to Fourth Generation - NVDs are categorized based on their relative image quality. Generation 0 NVDs saw service in the WWII & Korea. These devices depended on an external IR illuminator to provide sufficient light (though the reflected photons were invisible). Known as active IR devices, the Gen 0 NVDs had drawbacks. The use of the cathode-anode system to accelerate the electrons not only distorted the converted image, it shortened the life of the imaging tube. Second & most important, the use of an active IR spotlight enabled enemy forces similarly equipped with NVDs, to see the IR light & take action -- a classic case of "peek-a-boo, I see you."
First generation NVD were known as passive IR devices in that they were capable of functioning without an active IR illuminator. Known as starlight scopes, they used the ambient light provided by the moon & stars to function. Individuals using the Gen 1 devices would not give away their position (because they did not need to turn on the IR spotlight) it also meant the devices were less effective in extremely low light conditions. In addition, the Gen 1 devices used the same image intensifying system (cathode-anode) that the Gen 0 systems did, so poor image quality & tube burnout were problems.
Second Generation devices are distinguished from earlier devices by improved enhanced image clarity, thanks to the insertion of a microchannel plate (MCP) in the electron path. The function of the MCP is to accelerate, amplify, & multiply the electrons passing through it. The MCP is a glass disk with millions of holes in it. The MCP is housed within a vacuum & has electrodes on either side to accelerate the electrons passing through it. Electrons entering the MCP are accelerated by a jolt of electricity (5,000v) & as they move down the channel they collide with the channel walls (the channels are offset by 5-8 degrees for this reason), which causes the release of additional electrons (known as cascaded secondary emissions.) Since the number of electrons has been increased, rather than just accelerated, the resulting image is brighter & clearer. Electron multiplication allows the Gen 2 NVDs to function effectively in almost totally lightless conditions.
Third generation NVD are an improved version of the Gen 2. The converted image is sharper because the electron cathode is now made from gallium arsenide, which is effective at converting photons to electrons. The tube life of the Gen 3 models was extended by using an ion barrier on the MCP that reduces the number of electrons that pass down the tube.
Fourth generation NVD are referred to as filmless & gated devices that provide increased performance in high & low light conditions. The removal of the ion barrier film increases the number of electrons that reach the amplification stage, reducing the level of background "noise" (spurious signals created by the barrier) & also image distortion, while improving brightness. The power supply to the photo-cathode is gated for variable output. Reducing the power output allows the NVDs to be used in high ambient light conditions (high photon saturation levels) where photon amplification is not needed. Furthermore, the power regulator functions instantaneously, which enables the wearer to transition from low light to high light, & back to low light, without experiencing a degradation in performance or damage to the image intensifier tube.
Cutting Edge of Illumination: AN/PVS-7 Night Vision Goggles. AN/PVS-7 Specifications: Magnification: 1X; Resolution: 64 LP (min.); Field of View: 40 degrees; Diopter: +2-6; Weight: 1.8 lbs; Size: 6"x3"x6"; Battery: 2 AA; Battery Life: 40 hours.
While significant advances have been made in NVD technology, one constant limitation has been their dependence on ambient light. Over the years both white light & infrared spot lights have been used to augment passive NVDs (to increase their range & improve target acquisition & classification). Unfortunately, these light sources have been essentially incandescent lights with IR filters. The drawback to this arrangement is that the light source creates an enormous heat signature, which is not only visible in passive IR devices, but thermal devices as well. Help has arrived with recent developments in laser diode illumination (LDI). Using a monochromatic emitter (laser light), an LDI can provide passive NVD illumination without the telltale thermal signature (since the laser light is created by a monochromatic (single wavelength) emitter, there is no "bleed over" by the laser into the visible & infrared spectrums). LDIs are shrouded (to prevent observation of the light source), & gated to allow for modification of the beam from narrow (for use as a spotlight) to wide (illuminating up to 10-15 square acres) uses. Another advantage of the LDI is efficient energy usage - for example, the Air Force's LX-5 illuminator uses 230 watts of power at 28 volts, compared to the 1100 watts of power needed for its predecessor. & with an average diode life of 20,000 hours (roughly 4.5 years if used only at night), it won't go bad quickly. LDIs have been used in facility security operations (the laser illuminator is significantly more efficient at illuminating an area than standard white light, & is fully compatible with existing passive IR security cameras), & open water search & rescue operations (the USCG is currently using a modified form of the LX-5, dubbed the CG-30.) Another distinct advantage to the LDI is that their output can be tailored to a specific wavelength. This allows the emitter to project a beam that is outside the collection window for some NVDs, which would render the illuminating beam invisible to the NVDs.
Size is still a critical issue with NVD. Though night vision devices have gotten smaller over the years, they are still cumbersome & fatiguing to wear for long periods of time. In addition, the field of view through the intensifier tube is still relatively narrow (40 percent of a person's normal field of view), & creates a sense of tunnel vision for the wearer (to overcome this, some NVDs are manufactured as a monocular scope only, which allows for one eye to see the enhanced image while the other eye remains un occluded for peripheral vision.) The goal is to provide an enhanced image with the same degree of depth perception, clarity, & field of view as normal daylight sight. In the meantime, the ability to pick up your enemies in pitch-black night isn't a bad situation to be in -- just ask the owls.

V. 3 : Miscellaneous Weapons:
a.) Break the gas lines in a building that you are about to burn first or only break the gas lines & leave timed igniters.
b.) Pump propane or natural gas into large metal power pylons & ignite them - they might even fly!.
c.) Mortars as anti-aircraft flack devices sending exploding shrapnel up 2 to 4000 feet.
d.) Rent a room in a hotel or apartment building. Go in & seal it & turn on the gas (or bring gas along), leave timer & flee. Call cops so they arrive there or at a nearby apartment a few minutes before the explosion.
e.) Chainsaws for electric power poles, telephone poles & even to cut down trees - to make downtown uglier or a college campus clear cut!
f.) More on disguises: wigs, hairdos, beards & strange - or religious stuff - veils for women or men.
g.) Places that police & military officers hang out at, shop, eat, live & their families.
h.) Viterra Gelscape is a granular, organic, super-absorbent, hydrogel designed to increase the water-holding capacity, drainage, & aeration of soils. Since this stuff will turn water to Jell-O within minutes (& will repeat the same performance up to 100 times after drying out again), it is useful where quick, unexpected plugs, are needed. It is not permanent & could eventually be flushed from a system. However, in interrupting water flow where related damage might ensue, or in plugging fine nozzles such as in irrigation or snow-making equipment (possibly in hydroelectric turbines as well, with enough quantity) results could be gratifying. In a truck radiator, it would let things heat up enough so serious damage (heads warping, gaskets blowing, valves cracking) occurs. The following procedure might work: 1) Package the Gelscape in water-soluble capsules, such as gelatin diet supplements are sold in. 2) Fit into a hose leading to the engine block (either from the radiator or the heater). With good timing the gelscape will be in the block when it hydrates. (If it's simply put in the radiator, the core can be replaced-troublesome, time.. consuming, but not very expensive.) Gelscape costs about $108 for 15 pounds. One ounce will make a cup of water chewable. Figure about one pound per gallon of water for a rubbery consistency. You can also flush your time capsules down toilets, sinks, in sump pumps & wells., Troublesome & non-toxic.
i.) SLEEP TIGHT: Serving as a scout in a place like Iraq or Afghanistan can be brutal: blazing hot during the day, freezing at night. If the bad guys have some thermal or infrared sensors -- you stick out like a transvestite at the Republican National Convention. The folks at the Army's Natick Soldier Systems Center have put together the Small Unit Solar Shade -- a 4 man, camouflaged tent that reduces both near-infrared & thermal signature while providing protection from temperature extremes that occur during day & night operations. Scouts, special forces, & laser targeting teams, mostly work at dawn & dusk but not typically during the day to avoid detection. This break-through in concealment technology will enable teams to operate around the clock providing Battalion Commanders with a significant increase in reconnaissance information.
j.) TOOLS - For cutting chainlink fence, small (14") bolt cutters work well or try a good 8" wire cutter with compound-action. Most wire cutters will cut chicken wire & hardware cloth, but they are slow. If doing much of this type of cutting, tin snips or compound leverage ears are faster. If your project involves removing bolts, you may want to measure the head of the bolts earlier. Adjustable wrenches work for most jobs, but other sized wrenches, hacksaws & tools are often useful. Measure the distance of parallel sides of the bolt head or nut. Are they standard or metric markings on the bolt heads. What do they mean? If the bolt is heat-treated or case-hardened, they may require special hacksaw blades. Are the bolt heads a hex (6 sided)? Are they standard type or will specialized tools be required to remove them! Notice the placement of the bolts & nuts. Can you reach them with crescent, end, or box wrenches, or will it be necessary to bring socket wrenches & extensions? Place a few drops of Liquid Wrench or Penetrating Oil on the nuts & bolts during your reckon so they can be easily removed later (wipe off the drips & use a product with a minimal odor so you don't tip off workers or security guards). Be careful during recon not to be seen; later on your work night, if anything seems abnormal, figure you were seen. Cancel the job & slip away.
Based on your recon use crescent, end, box, or adjustable wrenches for bolts that are accessible. If you must use socket wrenches, use 6 point socket for hex bolts/nuts since 12 point may slip if the head is worn. Eight point sockets fit square nuts & bolts. If the bolt studs protrude very far through the nut, you may need use Deep or Bolt Clearance sockets. Six point deep sockets are readily available. Drive tools may be necessary for difficult nuts & bolts. Very large bolts may demand 3/4" or even 1 " square drive tools. These are heavy. When removing bolts, block the head or nut with a crescent or pipe wrench or another socket. Use a breaker bar (cheater) to loosen the bolt. When the bolt is turning, put a Ratcheting Adapter between the socket & breaker bar & finish pulling the bolt or nut. Two short lengths of pipe with a coupling will make your cheater easier to carry & conceal. Select thick-walled, heat-treated socket wrenches. A hand operated Impact tool can be used to loosen stubborn screws & bolts, but this is noisy. Power tools, chain saws, & oxy-acetylene or propane torches have serial numbers (sometimes not readily apparent). Such a tool dropped at the scene of a hit can be traced from the manufacturer to the retailer who sold it. Leave no paper trail linking your purchase to the tool.
k.) Tactical ops weapon - smoke & other obscurants - burning tires - to mess up helicopters & drones & AC 130s. Smoke enables small groups to hide or escape or to lure the aircraft in closer for a kill.
l.) Stocks of the following are crucial for all insurgent teams:308 ammo; 30-06 ammo (both in armor piercing & incendiary) ; 50 caliber ammo various kinds; high powered scopes, spotting scopes & binoculars; laser range finders of different types; blasting caps & fuse - det cord, timing devices, small battery clocks, road flares, charcoal, sulpher, potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate; soldering equipment; gun cleaning supplies; 20 pounds of fastburning bullet powder; 50 pounds of black powder; powdered aluminum, iron, magnesium; roofing nails/caltrops;
4 types of devices are recommended for each team to have available: A.) The cigarette pack and/or larger device- use 3 sets per hit or 2 sets of 2 in the same places. Coat pockets or purses are good for carrying the devices into the store or try a baby carriage & test out the store's rules on back packs before using them. Consider generic Kleenex or pop can containers (more ideas - please).
B.) The medium size device for key targets - libraries, hospitals, schools, & a hardened or more effective one for Hummer gas tanks, ATMs, to light diesel jugs & for propane storage areas. Could have a second & even bigger-sized medium one - with some thermite or ? - for hardened targets.
C.) Large thermate for cars, components & transformers - these could be the devices with magnets or sticky glue for attaching to tankers or armored cars. Also an even larger bucket-sized for buildings & machines. This would have 2 types - a heavy thermite one & a general incendiary one.
-- A description of the preparation of igniters (or "first fire") incendiary mixes, some basic incendiary mixes, & a thermate metal-destroying incendiary. Arson can be devastatingly effective. Millions of dollars in damage can be accomplished with a small investment & little danger. The assumption that evidence is destroyed by fire is incorrect. Fire investigation units will turn up if the origins of a fire appears suspicious. They possess a degree of skill & are able to determine the flash point of a fire & what caused it (electrical fault, cigarette, candle, spontaneous combustion, deliberate arson, etc.). They can tell the flammable substance which was used to start the fire (gasoline, paraffin, paper, etc.).
GENERAL: Incendiaries can be improvised more easily than explosives & the materials are more easily obtained. On a pound by pound basis, incendiaries can do more damage than explosives against many types of targets if used properly. There is a time lag, however, between the start of the fire & the destruction of the target. During this period the fire may be discovered & controlled or put out. An explosive once detonated has done its work. Incendiaries are cheap & little training is needed for their preparation & use. Used in carefully executed operations, the act of sabotage may be concealed in the ashes of an "accidental" fire. Fires may be started quickly & have reasonable chance of success if the following principles are observed:
1. See that there is plenty of air & fuel to feed the fire.
2. Use an incendiary that supplies a prolonged & persistent heat.
3. Start the fire low in the target structure & let it spread naturally upwards.
4. Use reflecting surfaces such as corners, boxes, shelves, to concentrate the heat.
5. Use drafts to spread the fire rapidly - near stairways, elevator shafts.
6. Protect the fire from discovery during the first few minutes by good concealment & timing.
In preparing improvised incendiaries observe basic rules of safety. Chemicals that must be powdered should be ground separately with clean tools & then mixed in the indicated proportions. Chemicals or mixtures should be kept tightly sealed in jars or cans to protect them from moisture. Damp materials will work poorly if at all.
DEFINITIONS: Common terms used in connection with incendiary systems are defined below. Note that the definitions are worded so as to cover only incendiaries. Some of the terms have additional meanings in the related field of explosives.
a. Delay Mechanism- Chemical ,electrical, or mechanical elements that provide a time delay. Elements may be used singly or in combination. They provide a predetermined, limited time interval before an incendiary starts to burn.
b. Fuse- A flexible fabric tube containing powder that is used to start fires at some remote location. The powder in the fuse burns & provides a time delay.
c. Igniter- An intermediate charge between an initiator & an incendiary material. It is set aflame by the initiator & produces sufficient heat at high temperature to ignite the main incendiary. Igniters are fast burning & relatively short lived.
d. Incendiary Material- A material that burns with a hot flame for long periods. Its purpose is to set fire to wooden structures & other combustible targets.
e. Incendiary System- A group of elements that are assembled to start fires. The system consists of a initiator, delay mechanism (if needed), igniter, & incendiary materials.
f. Initiator- The source that provides the first fire in an incendiary system. A match is an initiator. The initiator is so sensitive that it can be set off with little energy.
g. Spontaneous Combustion- The outbreak of fire in combustible material that occurs without an application of direct spark or flame. The fire is the result of heat produced by the chemical action of certain oils.
h. Thermate - (Thermite) An incendiary mixture of iron oxide flakes & aluminum powder that reacts chemically when initiated to form molten iron. It can be used to burn holes in steel or to weld steel parts together.

V. 5 : TOOLS & TECHNIQUES FOR MAKING ARSON DEVICES: The equipment needed for the manufacture of incendiaries consists of simple items. They are all readily available. Required are bottles, jars, pots, & spoons. There should be no difficulty in obtaining any of them. All the necessary equipment is described in each paragraph dealing with particular incendiary component. It is important that the operator follow the directions given in the manual exactly as written. They have been worked out carefully to give the desired results with the minimum chance of mishap. Don't experiment with different procedures or quantities. By its nature, fire is dangerous. Care is taken that no fires result during the making or placing of the devices. There are other dangers in addition to the fire hazard: chemicals used as ingredients may burn the skin, give off poisonous fumes, or be easily flammable.
Preventing a Fire Hazard
1. Fire prevention is much more important than fire fighting. Prevent fires from starting.
2. Keep flammable liquids away from open flames.
3. Good housekeeping is the fire prevention. Keep work areas neat & orderly. Clean away all equipment & material not needed at the moment. Clean up spills as soon as possible.
4. Store incendiaries in closed containers away from heat. Do not store materials any longer than necessary.
5. In the event of fire, remove from the danger area if this can be done quickly & safely. Use large quantities of water to fight fires.
Avoiding Chemical Hazards: 1. Wear rubber gloves, apron, & glasses when handling concentrated chemicals if possible.
2. Avoid inhaling fumes. Perform reactions in a well ventilated area or out of doors because the boiling is often violent & in large amounts, fumes are given off that are poisonous if breathed too much.
3. Avoid acid contact with the skin. If chemicals are spilled on a person, wash immediately in running water for several minutes. If they splash in eyes, wash the eye in running water for at least 15 minutes.
4. Clean up any acid that is spilled on the floor or bench by flushing with large amounts of water. Acid spilled on wood can cause a fire.
5. Always pour concentrated acids into water. Never pour water into concentrated acids because a violent reaction will occur.

Potassium Chlorate & Sugar Igniter - Chlorate-sugar is one of the best of the first fire or igniter mixes. It burns very rapidly, with a yellow-white flame & generates sufficient heat to ignite all homemade incendiaries mentioned in this handbook.
MATERIALS: Potassium chlorate (preferred) or sodium chlorate, sugar, pestle, glass or wood bowl.
PREPARATION: 1. Grind the chlorate separately in a clean, non-sparking (glass or wooden) bowl with a wooden pestle. The resulting granules should approximate those of ordinary table sugar.
2. Mix equal volumes of granulated chlorate & sugar by placing both on a large sheet of paper & lifting the corners alternately.
CAUTION: This mixture is extremely spark sensitive & must be handled accordingly.
3. Wrap 4 to 6 tablespoons of the mixture in thin paper so as to form a tight packet. Keep the mixture as dry as possible. If it is to be stored in a damp area before using, the packet may be coated with paraffin wax.
APPLICATION: Chlorate-sugar is easily ignited by the flame of a match, the spit of a percussion cap or time fuse. If ignited when under confinement it will explode like gun powder. If it is contained in waxed packet, therefore, the latter should be punched through in several places before it is used with a basic incendiary & ignited.
Flake Aluminum - Sulpher Igniter - This simple igniter burns extremely hot & will ignite even the metal destroying thermate, described later on. The mixture itself can be lit by chlorate sugar.
MATERIALS: Flake aluminum, finely powdered sulpher.
PREPARATION: 1. Mix 4 parts by volume of finely powdered sulphur with 1 part of aluminum powder.
APPLICATION: To use, place several spoonfuls of the mixture on the material to be lit & add a spoonful of chlorate sugar on top. Be sure to safety (time) fuse or other spark-producing delay system is placed so it will act upon the chlorate sugar mixture first.
Homemade Black Powder Igniter - Black powder may be used for igniting napalm, flammable solvents in open containers, paper, loose rags, straw & other tinder type materials. If it is not available already mixed, it can be prepared as follows:
MATERIALS: Potassium (or sodium) nitrate, powdered charcoal, powdered sulphur.
PREPARATION: 1. Into a clean, dry jar or can, put 7 spoonfuls of potassium or sodium nitrate, 2 spoonfuls of powdered charcoal, & 1 spoonful of powdered sulphur. The ingredients must be at least as fine as granulated sugar. If they must be ground, GRIND EACH SEPARATELY. Never grind the mixed ingredients - they may ignite or explode.
2. Cap the can or jar tightly & shake & tumble it until the ingredients are completely mixed.
APPLICATION: The mixture will be effective for months if kept tightly sealed & dry. Sodium nitrate in particular has a tendency to absorb moisture. To use the gunpowder, pile 2 or 3 spoonfuls on top of any solid incendiary material which is to be ignited. For igniting liquids in open containers, wrap 2 or 3 spoonfuls in a piece of paper & suspend it just above the liquid. Gunpowder is best ignited by a safety fuse. It burns very quickly with a great deal of heat, so allow sufficient time delay for safe withdraw from the vicinity.
Match Head Igniter - A good ignition material for incendiaries can be obtained from the heads of safety matches, which are available almost any place. The composition must be removed from the heads to get a sufficient quality of igniter material. It will ignite napalm, wax & sawdust, paper & other flammables.
MATERIALS: Safety matches.
PREPARATION: 1. Remove the match head composition by scraping with a knife or crushing with pliers. Collect several spoonful of it & store in a moisture tight container.
APPLICATION: Put at least 2 spoonfuls on the material to be ignited. To ignite liquids, such as solvents or napalm. Wrap several spoonfuls in a piece of paper & hang this just over the fluid, or place nearby. If fluids dampen the mixture it may not ignite. The ignition can be by time fuse, firecracker fuse, or spark.
HOME-MADE NAPALM - This item consists of a liquid fuel which is gelled by the addition of NON-DETERGENT soap powder or soap chips. It is prepared from readily available materials. This incendiary can be directly initiated by a match flame. If delay is required, the incendiary can be reliably initiated by a delay system. Napalm incendiary is easily ignited & long burning, & is suitable for setting fire to wooden structures & other large combustible targets: It adheres to objects, even on vertical surfaces.
MATERIALS: Soap powder or chips (bar soap can be easily shaved or chipped). Any of the following liquid hydrocarbon fuels: gasoline, fuel oil, diesel oil, kerosene, turpentine, benzol or benzene, toloul or toluene. A double broiler made from any material with the upper pot having the capacity of at least 2 quarts. A spoon or stick for stirring, A source of heat such as a stove or hot plate. A knife or grater if only bar soap is available. An air-tight container.
PREPARATION: 1. Fill bottom of double broiler with water & heat until the water boils. Shut off source of heat.
2. Place upper pot on top of the bottom pot & remove both containers to a point several feet away from the heat source.
3. Pour soap chips or powder into the upper pot of the double broiler to one-quarter of pot volume.
4. Pour any one of the liquid hydrocarbon fuels listed under MATERIALS above into the upper pot containing the soap chips or powder until the pot is one-half full. CAUTION: keep these fuels away from open flames.
5. Stir the mixture with a stick or spoon until it thickens to a paste having the consistency of jam. Do this in a well ventilated room where the vapors will not concentrate & burn or explode from a flame or spark.
6. If the mixture has not thickened enough after about 15 minutes of stirring, remove the upper pot & put it several feet from the heat source. Again bring the water in the lower pot to a boil. Shut off the heat source, place upper pot in lower pot at a location several feet from the heat source & repeat stirring until the napalm reaches the recommended consistency.
7. When the proper consistency is obtained, store the finish napalm in a tightly sealed container until used. Napalm will keep for months when stored this way.
APPLICATION: To use napalm effectively, it should be spread out over the surface of the material to be burned. This will start a large area burning at once. A match can be used to directly initiate this incendiary. A short time delay ignition can be obtained by tying or taping a bundle of matches around a lighted cigarette. Ignition occurs when the lighted portion of the burning cigarette reaches the match heads. This assembly is placed directly on the napalm. Usually this will ignite in 15 minutes, depending on the length of the cigarette, make of cigarette & force of air currents. A duplicate delay mechanism should be tested to determine the time delay for various conditions. The cigarette must be placed so that the flame will travel horizontally or upward. A burning cigarette that is clamped or held will not burn past the point of confinement. Therefore, the cigarette should not contact any other object other than matches. In very hot weather, or if the napalm is exposed to the direct rays of the sun, it is recommended that napalm be made with fuel oil. In extremely cold weather, it is recommended that napalm be made with gasoline. The destructive effect of napalm is increased when charcoal is added. The charcoal will readily ignite & the persistent fire from the charcoal will outlast the burning napalm. It is recommended that at least one quart of napalm be used to ignite heavy wooden structures & large wooden sections. A minimum of one-half quart is recommended for wooden structures of small cross section.
Paraffin-Sawdust Incendiary - Paraffin-sawdust is almost as effective as napalm against combustible targets, but it is slower in starting. It is solid when cool & thus is more easily carried & used than liquid-napalm. In addition, it can be stored indefinitely without special care.
MATERIALS: Dry sawdust, paraffin, or candle wax, spoon, pot, container.
PREPARATION: 1. Put enough wax in the pot so that it is about half full.
2. Heat the pot on a stove or hot plate until the wax melts.
3. Remove the heated pot from the stove or hot plate & shut off the source of heat. Add the sawdust to the melted wax until the wax is nearly full. Stir the mixture this a spoon or stick for a few minutes, being sure there is no layer of wax at the bottom of the pot which has not been mixed with the sawdust.
4. While the mixture is in a fluid state, pour it into the waxed paper carton or other container. Upon cooling, the wax mixture will harden & take the shape of the container.
APPLICATION: The mixture can be stored for months without losing its effectiveness. If it becomes wet, it will be effective again when it is dried. Lumps of the mixture the size of a fist are easiest to manage. The chunks of incendiary may be carried to the target in a paper bag or other wrapper. Any igniter that will set fire to the paper wrapper will ignite the wax & sawdust. A similar incendiary can be made by dipping sheets of newspaper into melted wax & allowing them to cool. These papers may then be crumpled up & used in the same manner as the paraffin-sawdust, although they will not burn as hot & persistency.
Sawdust, Moth flakes, & Oil Incendiary - This incendiary is very good for use against all kinds of wooden structures, including heavy beams & timbers. It also works well on paper, rags, straw, & other timber type materials. It will start fires in open containers of flammable liquids, piles of coal, coke, or lumber, & on baled rags & paper. It is not effective against metal.
MATERIALS: Dry sawdust, moth flakes (naphthalene), fuel oil (kerosene or diesel oil), spoon, container.
PREPARATION: 1. Place equal parts of sawdust, moth flakes, & oil into a container & stir until the mixture is the consistency of mush. 2. Store it in any container that will retain the oil fumes.
APPLICATION: An easy, effective way to use this mixture is to put about a quart of it in a paper bag & place the bag on the target material. The bag can be lit with a match & the mixture will ignite quite readily It burns as well as napalm. If a longer delay time is required, use one of the igniter mixes described earlier along with time fuse or other delay device. The time fuse alone, however, will not ignite the incendiary mix. Where very large wood beams are to be burned, an additional amount of the incendiary will be required. Two or three quarts is enough to destroy almost any target against which the technique would be effective. For the greatest effect on wood structures, the mixture should be placed beneath the target material, if possible, so the flames will spread upward. In a packing box or room, a corner is a good place to start the fire.
INCENDIARY BRICK - This incendiary is composed of potassium chlorate, sulphur, sugar, iron filings & wax. When properly made, it looks like an ordinary building brick & can be easily transported without detection. The incendiary brick will ignite wooden walls, floors, & many other combustible objects, & can be hidden amongst building supplies at construction sites (wood piles, etc). This incendiary can be directly ignited by all igniters listed in this booklet coupled with a cigarette delay or similar mechanism.
MATERIALS: Parts by volume
Potassium chlorate (powdered)-------------- 40
Sulphur (powdered)----------------------------15
Granulated sugar------------------------------- 20
Iron filings-------------------------------------- 10
Wax (paraffin or ordinary candle wax)----- 15
Spoon or stick, Brick mold, Red paint, Measuring cup or can, Double boiler, Heat source (hot plate or stove).
PREPARATION: 1. Fill the bottom half of the double boiler with water & bring to a boil.
2. Place the upper half of the boiler on the lower portion & add the wax, sulphur, granulated sugar, & iron fillings in proper amounts.
3. Stir well to blend all the materials evenly.
4. Remove the upper half of the double boiler from the lower portion & either shut off the heat source or move the upper section several feet from the fire. Caution: Extreme care should be exercised at this point because accidental ignition of the mixture is possible. Some means of extinguishing a fire should be at hand, a fire extinguisher or sand. It is important to keep face, hands, & clothing at a reasonably safe distance during the remainder of the preparation. A face shield & fireproof gloves are recommended.
5. CAREFULLY add the required amount of potassium chlorate & again stir well to obtain a homogeneous mixture.
6. Pour the mixture into a brick mold & set aside until it cools & hardens.
7. When hard, remove the incendiary from the mold, & paint it red to simulate a normal building brick.
APPLICATION: When painted, the incendiary brick can be carried with normal construction materials & placed in or on combustible materials. A short time delay or ignition can be obtained by combining a cigarette delay & one of the igniter mixtures listed earlier. (For example, several spoonfuls of Sugar-Chlorate mixture are placed on the incendiary brick. A cigarette delay or similar timed device is partially buried in the center of the igniter mixture (match heads should be in close contact with the igniter).
THERMATE INCENDIARY : Thermate is similar to commercial thermite, used in welding, except that it also contains an oxidizer, making it easier to ignite. Thermate will readily burn paper, rags, excelsior, straw & other tinder type materials. However, its main use in sabotage operations is against motors, gears, latches & other metal targets--to weld moving parts together, warp precision machined surfaces, & so on. Since it burns with a brief, almost explosive action, it is not recommended for burning wooden structures or other materials where persistent heat is required. Thermate can be made from aluminum or magnesium powder & a chemical oxidizing agent, as described below:
MATERIALS: Aluminum filings powder or flakes, or magnesium filings or powder, plus any one of the following chemicals: potassium nitrate, sodium nitrate, barium nitrate, potassium dichromate, or potassium permanganate. Although aluminum & magnesium are equally effective, thermate made from magnesium is easier to ignite. Flake aluminum, which is the extremely fine variety used in paints, is excellent. In any case, both the metal & chemical ingredients should be no coarser than granulated sugar.
PREPARATION: 1. Fill a quart size (or larger) container about 2/3 full of equal parts of the metal powder & the oxidizing agent.
2. Cover with a tight lid, then roll & tumble the container until the contents are completely mixed.
3. If flake aluminum is the metal used, fill the container * full of the aluminum then add oxidizing agent until the container is 3/4 full. Mix as described above. Thermate in a sealed container can be stored for months.
APPLICATION: To use, put 1 or 2 pounds of the mixture in a paper bag & place it on the target in such a way that when it burns the red hot molten material will run down & attack the vital parts. Chlorate-sugar & aluminum-sulphur igniters are best for setting off thermate, particularly if the thermate contains aluminum powder, which is more difficult to ignite.
Empty toilet-roll, iron wire, plastic-wrap, matches, wire garbage ties, firelighters, incense, tape, 2L plastic bottle, gasoline.
HOW THEY MAKE THEM: 1. Take 3 sticks of incense, & wire the 3 wood stems together using wire garbage ties. Use some string if need be to keep the incense close together.
2. Tie as many matches as possible on the incense sticks, near the bottom of the burnable incense material. The incense sticks act as a fuse, lighting the matches. Make sure the match heads are very close together so they will ignite.
3. Take a piece of iron wire & wrap it around the ends of the incense sticks, with the 2 ends loose.
Make a hole in the side of the toilet-roll, roughly 1/4 up from the bottom. Hang the incense bundle inside & pull the 2 loose wire ends through it. The incense bundle should be secured in the middle of the tube, & should not touch the insides. Fold the 2 wires, each to one side & secure them with tape. MAKE SURE THAT THIS CONSTRUCTION IS STRONG, IF YOU SHAKE IT AROUND A BIT THE INCENSE SHOULD STAY IN ITS PLACE. USE STRONG WIRE & TAPE.
4. Secure a square of plastic wrap around the bottom of the toilet tube with the tape.
5. Break the heads off of at least two small boxes of wooden matches. Take fire-lighters (like the ones used for BBQ) & break them into little pieces. Mixing the matches & firelighters together, put them inside the toilet tube, filling closely to the matches tied onto the incense sticks.
6. Cut off several long lengths of iron wire (4 pieces for each device) & twist them together like this: *(wires are 10cm/4 inch.) leaving 2 ends untwisted. Secure the toilet tube within the open wires & continue to twist the loose ends together, tight. Secure the wire in place near the top of the toilet tube with some tape, keeping it in place. The wire ends must be at least 10cm long.
7. The device is now ready, & can be transported inside a small box. Fold the wire like this *(picture shown) to protect the incense sticks during transportation.
8. Each 2L plastic pop bottle should be 3/4 full of gasoline. When you arrive at your target, cut the tops of the bottles off with a Stanley knife. Put the bottles under the target (i.e. behind the front wheels of a meat truck). Take the device & fold the iron wires into their old position. Light the incense sticks (all three) BEFORE you place the devices in the bottles.
9. Make sure that the bottom of the device is not hanging in the fuel. If necessary, fold the iron wires so the device hangs higher. The incense will burn down & light the match heads tied at the base. These will flame & ignite the match heads & firelighters. All of this will melt through the plastic wrap & fall into the gasoline.

V. 7 : How to make a simple electric igniter for use with an electric timer.
Materials: Electric Tape 1 roll; Road Flare; Automobile Tail Light Bulb (1156 type); 1 small roll of solder; Two 12" (30cm) lengths of wire; National Magazine; Gloves
Tools: Volt meter -- Soldering Iron
Security: -- Obvious warnings about fingerprints, hair, fibers & buying materials apply. Wear gloves during handling of materials. Buy supplies in advance, so that if the components are eventually traced to a particular store you aren't remembered or on video a few days before the action purchasing supplies. Don't buy supplies near where you live or the target. Be a clean freak. Solder, wire insulation, wire ends, packaging & plastic shavings can all be traced directly back to a device. Safely dispose of ALL tools, soldering iron tip, broken glass, wire, gloves, solder, & tape used. The small cost of new tools & supplies is well worth it in the end. Ideally rent a motel room far from the scene & take a day to prepare the materials. DO NOT use local newsprint in case device is discovered use a national paper or magazine. Be careful that it is not a specialized local edition of the paper or news magazine. DO NOT lose any wire ends, wire insulation or flare powder during construction. Keep a clean construction area.
Assembly: Heat tail light bulb with candle or gas stove, when bulb is sufficiently hot, dip into disposable cup filled with ice cold water. This should cause the bulb to crack. Then tap gently with pliers or screw driver (be careful not to damage the filament). Fractured glass will shatter easily & drop into water (when through dispose of cup & water securely). Solder wires on to tail light bulb.
Figure V. 62
Disassemble the road flare, carefully removing the black powder. Pulverize this & mix it 50 - 50 with the white flare powder. The bulb needs the powder to ignite the flare powder. Take a 6" (15 cm) square piece of newsprint & fold it as shown to make a funnel shaped cone. Pour the 50-50 powder mix into the folded cone & place the 1156 tail light bulb gently into the mixture. Using electrical tape, tape around the base of the bulb being careful NOT TO tape onto the filament area.
Trim off extra newsprint from around the base of the light bulb.
Take 8" (30 cm) square piece of newsprint & repeat the above using about 1/4 of the remaining flare powder.
Using the volt meter switch to the resistance mode (upside down U) touch the two probes together & note meter, this is what a continuous connection looks like. Make sure that the filament wasn't damaged during construction by checking for a continuous connection by touching each probe to a wire end. The igniter is now complete & ready to connect to an electric timer for use. Possibilities include a simple style electric timer or a more complex version (both from the Final Nail #2).

What is in road flares? Different companies use different compositions when manufacturing road flares, so it is impossible to give a specific answer for the flare in your hand. However, they do tend to have similar compositions, & so a generalized answer is possible. Examine the following table.

Strontium nitrate 69 61 60 62 75 63 31 43
Potassium nitrate 15 23 15
Potassium perchlorate 8 10 44 9
Sulfur 13 6 7 19 10 16
Charcoal 5 2 4
Sawdust 10 4
Aluminum flake 16
Magnesium 50-100 29
Red gum 13 7
Epoxy resin 25
Shellac 5
Dextrin 2
Parlon 12
Source "Railway"
Davis "Railway"
Davis "Railway"
Davis "Railway"
Davis "Railway"
Davis "Wing tip"
Davis "Low reside"
Conkling McLain
Note that every composition contains strontium nitrate (Sr(NO3)2). That is because the strontium is responsible for either a red or red-orange color. However, strontium nitrate is not a great oxidizer - a mixture of Sr(NO3)2 & a fuel will hardly burn. So a better oxidizer such as potassium perchlorate or potassium nitrate or an energetic fuel such as aluminum or magnesium is added to give the extra energy needed for a fast combustion. The rest of the components are either fuels, or a compound that serves as a combination fuel & binder, or parlon which is a binder but not really a fuel. Some older flare formulations also had things such as pitch, asphalt, wax, tallow, potassium chlorate & black powder. Those are not likely to be part of modern flare formulations. The flares are pressed dry.
Can one extract the strontium nitrate from the flare? Yes, but... you don't know what you have in the flare, so you can't plan a safe extraction procedure; you will spend a lot of time if you want the product to be pure; if you don't get a pure product, you are asking for trouble when you mix it with other stuff; the price is far higher than buying it from a pyrotechnic supply house. If you INSIST on extracting chemicals from road flares, you can get a long way by noticing that out of the list above, the only water soluble things are strontium nitrate, potassium nitrate & potassium perchlorate, & to some extent dextrin. One could break up the road flare, crumble it, & soak it in water. Filtering the road flare would then give a mixture of those 4 compounds assuming that the road flare is similar to those in the table above. Note that soaking magnesium in aqueous solutions of oxidizers can lead to highly exothermic reactions which can cause a steam explosion. Separation of the strontium nitrate from the other compounds is not trivial. In the following analysis let us assume we have extracted a kilogram (2.2 pounds) of road flares: we have 1 liter (about a quart) of a concentrated solution of the salts. Since dextrin is not a common ingredient, let us assume that there is no dextrin. If dextrin is present it will make the separation much more difficult. If one cooled the solution to 0° C, up to 600 grams of the strontium nitrate would remain in solution, & a lot of the other salts would precipitate out. Only 7.5 grams of the potassium perchlorate would remain in solution. A full 130 grams of potassium nitrate would remain in solution. If the crystals were removed by filtration, & the solution evaporated, one could obtain a material that might have the following composition: Strontium nitrate, 0 - 600 grams Potassium nitrate, 0 - 130 grams Potassium perchlorate, 0 - 7.5 grams
VI. 9 : Expedient Method of Cutting Spikes - Secure one end of the rebar or metal rod (by clamping, jamming) & lay the free ends across a crotched (or notched) piece of wood under the cut to be made, about one foot from the end. Lay the blade alongside one of the retention ridge which run across the rebar at a 45 degree angle. Make several light stroke until the blade cuts into the bar enough to prevent sideways slipping. With little practice you can cut more than a dozen road spikes an hour in this manner.
Building a Jig - Any kind of miter box that doesn't reduce the length of the stroke much is okay. A simple method is to place 2 cement blocks on end & place the length of rebar to be cut in the grooves on the ends. Saw the rebar between the cement blocks.
Using an Acetylene Torch is the easiest method of turning out large numbers of spikes or caltrops. Learning how to cut (as opposed to welding or joining) with a torch is easy. Someone can show you in half an hour how to hook up & adjust equipment well enough to burn off rods. Learn how to handle the gases & equipment safely, & to adjust the flame.
Advanced Road Spiking
We have directed much energy toward stopping ATVs, dirt bikes & 4-wheeled Quad Runners. These abominations present problems different from those presented by 4 x 4 trucks & jeeps. The light weight of an ATV, coupled with the pliable, low air pressure tires, makes it possible for the tire to bounce over a standard 1/2" rebar spike cut at a 45-degree angle & sticking up 3" from ground level. To increase effectiveness use 3/8" rebar with tips cut at an angle of 60 degrees or greater. For standard emplacements we use 14" long spikes, so that 4-5" remains above ground. As a general rule, for maximum stability, the length of the spike underground should be at least twice the length of the part above ground. The harder the ground the less the spike needs to be buried.
Before cutting rebar, notice that it has two longitudinal ridges running opposite each other. Start your cut on one ridge, since it helps form a sharp tip for the spike. While a hacksaw works well, also consider using metal-working tools such as a "Sawz-all" with metal blades or the special metal-cutting carbide blades for hand-held circular saws. If you use a metal grinder to sharpen tips, do not overheat the lip, as the metal will lose its temper, making it brittle.
A most effective emplacement tool is a block of 1 1/2" plywood or three 1/2" plywood strips nailed together. The block should be 3 to 4 inches wide (enough to grip well) & 8 to 10 inches long. Align your spike tip & place the block over the tip & drive with your single-jack hammer. Plywood drives the spikes without dulling the tips & will not split apart. The plywood block is easily removed from the spike & will last a long time.

Caltrops are effective for flattening tires. They are sold through Soldier of Fortune style mail-order houses for about $1.75 each (possession is legal). If you are a beginning welder you can make your own for less than 10 cents apiece. Take a welding class at the local community college. Learn how to cut & weld using an Oxy-acetylene outfit. You'll be amazed at how much this will expand your horizons as an insurgent. A cutting torch can slice through iron like a hot knife through butter.
INGREDIENTS: Oxy-acetylene welding outfit & Small diameter welding rod; 12 pounds of 20d nails (bright box); Sturdy workbench & 2 vises; 3 pairs of welding goggles; 18" handle bolt cutters, Medium weight hammers, 2 pairs of pliers. Clamp one handle of the bolt cutters horizontally in the vise. Hold a nail in the jaws at a 45 degree angle with one hand & push the free handle down with the other hand to snip off the head & leave a nasty-looking point where the head was. Cut the minimum amount of nail off with the head. It's easier to snip when the nail is jammed as far into the jaws as possible (might as well do this to 600 nails while you're at it). Wear safety glasses to protect your eyes in case a nail head flies off. Save every single nail head for disposal somewhere other than your workshop.
Now mark the center of each headless nail with a felt tip pen. The best way to do this is by marking 2 parallel lines on the workbench one-half nail length apart, & laying the nails over these lines to mark them. Clamp one of those double pointed nails vertically in the vise with the midpoint mark just showing. Bang it over with the hammer until you have a wide shape with an interior angle in the neighborhood of 110 degrees. Make sure it comes out with the bend at the midpoint. Do this to only 6 nails. Clamp one of these bent nails with one tip in the jaws of the vise so that it is in an upright "V" position. Balance another bent nail over the first one crosswise in the inverted "V" position. This is what a caltrop looks like. All you have to do now is weld the nails together.
Notice that there is a convenient place for 2 tack welds where the nails cross, & 2 more places on the underside. Strike the torch & do a tack weld. Before the weld cools, tweak the caltrop with pliers so that it is symmetrical. Do the other tack weld. Turn off the torch so that you will have 2 free hands to loosen the vise slightly. Grab the caltrop with pliers, take it out of the vise, & reposition it upside down to expose the 2 remaining tack welds. Strike the torch again & do those welds. When the caltrop cools, give it a test by placing it on the ground. No matter how it falls, one point should be vertical. If not, then either the bend in the nail is not the proper angle or you welded it crooked. When you've got a decent prototype, set it aside. Tape a piece of cardboard to your vise & make a mark on it to serve as bending guide for all the 100s of nails you're about to bend. Clamp a nail vertically in the vise with the midpoint mark just showing & pound it over the tip is even with the mark. Bend nails to the correct angle one at a time. Now you're ready for the welding assembly line.
Caltrops can be constructed with an arc welder: Obtain nails at least 4 inches long, the thicker the better, & cut off the heads with bolt cutters or a hacksaw. Sharpen both ends on a grinding wheel. Extreme sharpness is not necessary as the weight of the vehicle drives the nail into the tire even if somewhat blunt. Weld at least 3 of these nails together in opposing planes so that there is a tripod effect no matter how a thrown caltrop lands. To perform the actual welding, place one nail in a vise, hold the other in a pair of visegrips, & use your other hand to hold the electrode. To make good use of your time & welding gas, use a three-piece production team with one welder & 2 helpers. This requires 2 vises on the workbench about two-and-a-half feet apart. Provide welding goggles & a pair of pliers to each worker. The welder works one vise while the helpers set up a pair of caltrops at another. Each vise has 2 sides & can hold 22 caltrops at a time for an efficient production line. The welder does the first 2 tack welds on both caltrops in vise A while the helpers are setting 2 more in vise B, then the helpers flip the caltrops on vise A while welding happens at vise B. Finished caltrops are placed on the floor to air quench.
* Cover the jaws of the vise with pieces of wood, cardboard, or metal to prevent leaving distinct tool marks on the caltrops. Such tool marks may reveal the brand of bench vise. Dispose of the jaw covers after the manufacturing is complete. Two possible methods of making caltrops: weld a cross, then bend & sharpen the 4 parts; or weld side by side, bend & sharpen.
* Somewhat cruder caltrops can be made with inexpensive arc-welding units as small as 70 amps. Higher-amperage units are more expensive but will produce faster & more substantial welds. It is important to read the operating instructions carefully before arc-welding & to use hand & eye protective gear (intense light can burn the retina).
Short on caltrops? Put a caltrop or other sharp object inside a target. Many off-roaders love to drive over the random beer can or paper cup, so put a surprise in one. Those Styrofoam clam-shell containers from fast food places even have a use. One will hold the business end of a broken bottle with its points up. These targets make cleanup afterwards easier. Effective caltrops can be made with 4 to 6 inch reinforcing mesh used in concreting. This mesh cut at an angle in the middle of each span will produce steel crosses. Bend them at right angles to form quick caltrops. Spray paint caltrops black for use on asphalt so they will be less conspicuous. For simple caltrops, drive a half dozen long nails through a golf ball so that they stick out in all directions. Spray paint the whole thing with a color similar to the surface on which they might be used. Remember that a box of these in your car might look suspicious to a policeman. Generally a metal object bends under a vehicle's weight & doesn't compress lengthwise. A well-anchored 6d finishing nail is adequate, provided it is set at the angle of pure compressional impact. Lubrication facilitates penetration (a light oil also allows camouflaging road dust to be adsorbed). A simple wooden jig can be used to set the angle in the field; for mountain bikes (60 degrees), for sedans (61 degrees), for pickups (62 degrees), for large off-road trucks (64 degrees) & for semis & logging trucks the angle is 65-66 degrees.

These nails have large heads so they will stand on end easily, they are found at every hardware store, & they are cheap. The nails come in length up to 2 1/2 inches long. This is long enough for regular tires, but not long enough to flatten a heavy-duty 4-wheeler tire. The advantage of roofing nails is that they cause the tire to go flat - in a period of time from minutes to hours, thus distributing stalled cars all around the city. The best place to set them is at the entrance to a freeway, an intersection or at the beginning of a commuter arterial in a wealthy neighborhood. For maximum effectiveness, hand set them with the bases down & cover bases with road dirt to camouflage them. Paint them the same color as the ground if you really want to hide them. A single person can scatter hundreds of these nails in a short time. They can also be scattered caltrop fashion in order to aid escape although many of the nails will not fall point up. Distribution by bicycle or through trap doors cut in the floorboards of a vehicle are ideas. Disrupting elections, rush hour traffic, holiday shoppers or creating diversions for bigger actions are typical uses for roofing nails on roadways.

A cheap, light-duty cutting torch designed for artists & hobbyists is a suitable tool for cutting rebar for use as road spikes. However, a medium or heavy-duty torch (costing about $60 to $100 more) should be used for structures or heavy equipment. This set-up can handle larger volumes of gases & therefore can cut larger pieces of steel faster (like bulldozer blade arms & railroad rails in less than a minute each). Since the use of a torch is a team operation (an oxy-fuel flame is very bright - if you use it without a lookout, you're asking to get caught). Get the largest oxygen bottle you can reasonably transport. The whole principle of flame cutting is to burn the metal in a stream of oxygen. The fuel is needed only to preheat the metal. Thus the amount of metal you can cut is directly related to the amount of oxygen you can dispense. Charts provided with the equipment give you the data you need on gas requirements.
Consider only acetylene or propane for fuel. Both are equally effective for cutting. Acetylene looks less suspicious in the field because it can also be used for welding, but it's more expensive (unless you rent the bottle). It is also much bulkier to transport, a little trickier to handle, & can be obtained only at welding supply shops. Propane is cheaper & easier to handle, can be obtained almost anywhere, & can be used in camp stoves. But it cannot be used for welding. The cutting torch attachment, handle, hoses, oxygen bottle, & oxygen regulator are the same regardless of fuel. Only the cutting tips, fuel bottle, & regulator are different with different fuels (although an acetylene regulator is fine for propane, a propane-only regulator is cheaper). If you lack money & do not have a propane bottle already, go with oxyacetylene & rent the gas bottles. If weight is a major concern (& no need to weld) go with oxy-propane & either rent the oxygen bottle or buy an aluminum oxygen bottle. Don't buy a steel oxygen bottle as aluminum ones weigh two-thirds as much. A supplier of medical gases is a place to start looking for an aluminum oxygen bottle. You don't need to be a gorilla to backpack a heavy-duty oxy-propane set-up with an aluminum oxygen bottle of sufficient capacity to cut up a bulldozer or a bridge.
If you must be neat or conserve gases, use the right size tip for the thickness of the metal you are cutting. If you want to destroy something as quickly as possible, use the largest tip appropriate for the amount of gas you have. Besides using it for cutting, you can use your torch to melt bearings, destroy hydraulic pistons, fuse joints, wreck gear teeth, etc. (watch out for grease & oil). A torch may be the optimum tool for converting an expensive machine into a pile of scrap - quickly & quietly. Any metal that readily oxidizes can be cut with an oxygen torch. Aluminum burns very fast; copper burns slowly; stainless can't be burned at all. Since you need to practice, experiment at home with scraps of the same material you'll be up against in the field. Beware of volatile metals like zinc & cadmium (common plating materials) because they can produce dangerous fumes (cadmium is as toxic as mercury & is retained by the body longer.) While seldom safe for the solo saboteur, a cutting torch can be an important tool for a sabotage gang. It is more hazardous than other hand tools, but, in combination with other tools, it can reduce the need for explosives.
FIELD NOTES - A cutting torch makes you visible at a distance (especially at night). If possible, use a screen. Have lookouts who can warn of approach a considerable distance away. In case you have to abandon your equipment to escape, be sure there are no fingerprints or other marks on it that could link it to you. Use caution in purchasing cutting torch equipment. Get the equipment at a welding supply store. They can provide the right equipment, the gases, & the instruction manuals. Use of a cutting torch is fairly simple but certain safety precautions must be observed or torch use becomes dangerous. The instruction booklets are thorough on both technique & safety. However, they assume you are cutting clean
metal. If you cut metal contaminated with oil or grease, be careful. Oil & grease can burn explosively in pure oxygen. If you are packing a cutting torch to a remote location, it is difficult to disguise your equipment. Scratch the operation if you are seen.

VII. 13: Electromagnetic Pulse Devices
EMP/HERF/Shock Pulse Generators- Shock wave generators are capable of producing focused acoustic or electromagnetic energy that can break up objects such as kidney stones & other similar materials. EMP generators can produce pulses of electromagnetic energy that can destroy the sensitive electronics in computers & microprocessors. Destabilized LCR circuits can produce multi megawatt pulses by using an explosive wire disruptive switch. These high power pulses can be coupled into antennas, conic sections, horns etc for very directional effects. Research is currently being undertaken to disable vehicles thus avoiding dangerous high speed chases. The trick is to generate a high enough power pulse to fry the electronic control processor modules. This could be a lot simpler if the vehicle was covered in plastic or fiber glass rather than metal. The shielding of the metal body offers a challenge to the researcher to develop a practical system. A system could be built that could do this but would be costly, large & produce collateral damage to friendly targets. Devices described are intended for experienced researchers & qualified personnel who are aware of all hazards & liabilities in use of this equipment EMP1 - Plans/Data (By Download (Papal Only) - $18.00)
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Communications: Pre arranged codes - like the pager scene - & a way to rotate them according to full moon & odd-even years or whatever. With a randomness factor like every third moon go back to first, etc. Or - Just follow the action pick what you want to do with codes only letting you know if a team is still active& what region they are operating in. Set up an emergency phone number with someone on duty as part of your planning. Study UHF & VHF frequencies at the hgigh and low ends.
A radio is perhaps the best tool for avoiding capture. Radios allow you to place a lookout miles away on a mountain top or along an access road. This changes warning time from moments to minutes & allows a clean getaway.
Types of Radios - CBs - A basic piece of radio equipment is a full-power (5 watt or more) citizen band (CB) hand-held transceiver ("walkie-talkie") with multichannel capability (preferably all 40 channels), an internal 12-volt battery supply, & a high-Low power switch. Five-watt transmitters have an effective range of from one to 10 miles (depending on local terrain, weather, & electrical interference). Greater power is rarely necessary, & even with this amount of power one could be overheard by the wrong people in many areas. Thus use the high-lo power switch to save batteries & minimize the chance of being overheard.
CBs are recommended because they are cheap, easy to get, & common enough to look only minimally suspicious. Because they work in the low frequency AM mode, their signal bends easily & is thus more suitable for rugged terrain than higher frequency FM. A 12-volt power requirement for the radio allows the unit to be plugged directly into a vehicle electrical system for mobile use. For portable use the power supply is usually eight standard AA size batteries in series. Using a transistorized voltage doubler circuit solves the problem of the vehicle battery being the same voltage as the battery pack. Complete plans can be found in the 1982 edition of The Radio Amateur's Handbook. Assembly requires little knowledge of electronics. Solar battery chargers are available for use in the field. A basic radio communications set-up can be purchased for about $100.
PAGER - A relatively low-cost system includes the pager-type alarm systems designed for use as a silent car alarm. These consist of a compact CB band transmitter & pager-type ( receiver that beeps when a signal is received). A lookout can use this as a one way communications system to contact a team of saboteurs. Avoid underpowered systems. A good model is the Page Alert available at auto parts stores. The transmitter can be mounted in the vehicle permanently, as for an alarm use, or it can be made portable. For portable use, carry the transmitter with a portable CB antenna (commonly available magnetic or gutter-mount types) & a portable 12-volt power supply. This portable power supply can be made by wiring two 6-volt lantern-type batteries together in the following sequence: Connect the positive (+) terminal of one battery to the negative (-) terminal of the other; connect the remaining positive & negative battery terminals to the appropriate positive & negative leads as indicated on the wiring instructions for the transmitter. Tape the batteries together, side by-side; place them in a small cardboard box & fit the box into a small pack or pouch for easy carry. If you intend to use the transmitter from a vehicle but do not want to mount it permanently, use the same types of antennas mentioned above, but instead of the battery pack, wire the unit to a cigarette-lighter type plug to enable you to set up quickly.
To transmit, simply flip the switch on & the unit will send out a signal for 5 to 10 seconds & automatically shut off. The signal transmission can be repeated by flipping the switch off & then on again. The Page Alert system broadcasts at four watts & has a range of one to 2 miles Test it in the field to determine realistic ranges. Also, keep in mind that the pulsing signal sent out by this unit can be picked up by other CB radios an( even by TV sets if they are close enough to the transmitter. On the receiving end is the pager-type receiver about the size of a pack of cigarettes. It is best carried in a shirt or jacket pocket with a button-down flap. When the signal is received, the pager will emit a low beeping tone until shut off. This sound should be muted by putting layers of electrical tape over the opening on top that emits the tone. Although this system allows only one-way communication, a system of repeated transmissions can be used as a crude form of sending 2 or 3 different messages (pre-arranged). The pager-type receiver cannot be relied on to receive transmissions inside a building containing large amounts of metal in the walls or frame. Pagers can also be bought with a service contract and usually no ID is required. Just be careful where you check messages from and who calls you to avoid compromising security. Even when compromised for voice messaging communication, the numeric capability can send coded messages that appear to be only phone number pages,
WALKMAN-TYPE - Another kind of radio equipment that is popular is a short-range unit, the size of a cigarette pack equipped with lightweight headset a microphone. Look for a unit that allows you to choose between a "push-to-talk switch & a "VOX" switch (this activates the microphone automatically at the sound of your voice). These walkman type units have a maximum range of about a quarter of a mile under ideal circumstances. 4 Walkman-type two-way radios 49 MHz. These units have an effective range, of about half a mile. They are available as handheld or as Walkman-type units. Single channel models are smaller & lighter. With these units you cannot accidentally get on the wrong channel. With the five channel model if there is interference, you have an alternative channel. Some cordless telephones also operate on the 46-49 MHz band. You may want to avoid using the radios in urban areas. The Radio Shack #43-189 Rubber Duckie antenna designed for use on cordless telephones can be used on 49 MHz walkie talkies. Units with telescoping antennas, properly mounted & connected might work on headset-type units. Get a Radio Shack catalog from your store.
Practice & Use - Practice with radio equipment before undertaking an operation. Learn how buildings & topography affect the range of your equipment A pre-mission "dry run" to test radio communication is a good idea. A real danger with radios is that a casual listener or radio buff may pick up your transmissions & become suspicious. Due to the vagaries of radio, transmission, such a listener might be miles away. To make such intercepts meaningless, develop a simple code that will make your conversation sound commonplace, even boring. NEVER, use real names on the air. Be wary, sheriffs & rangers often have CB scanners in their cars. Perhaps the greatest danger in using radios on an operation is the chance that security guards or passersby might hear the user's voice (rather than transmission itself). Using the earphone headset of the 'Walkman" type radio will keep the messages you hear from being overheard, but the sender's is another matter. To keep your voice from carrying, cup your hand around mike & hold it as close to your mouth as possible. Speak in a low voice slowly & calmly, pronouncing all words very clearly. If you have trouble hearing or being heard, remain calm. Never raise your voice, as this will be more likely to reveal your location than to help the transmission.
Scanners - The ads in specialty magazines like Amateur Radio & Popular Communications can lead you to mail-order suppliers. A variety of radio or scanner units can be bought for under $150. Check radio shops in a big city for scanner frequency listings (Fox Scanner Radio Listings or Scanner World USA, 10 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208 with an extensive catalog of scanners, CBs, & frequency directories; also: Monitor America contains frequency listings & a number of partial police radio codes which can help you understand police communications)
There are two types of radios for monitoring police calls. The older type is crystal-controlled, & requires buying a separate crystal for every frequency you wish to monitor. Because of the security problems associated with purchasing these crystals, this type of unit is not recommended. Your best choice is a programmable scanner that has a keyboard on it which allows you to select the frequencies you want. These units will scan a large number of frequencies, stopping on one when a transmission is picked up. This can allow you to monitor just the frequencies that are important on a specific job or in a certain area (those of any combination of city, county, state, or federal agencies).
Major features to look for in a programmable scanner
1.) AC or DC power. This allows you to use the scanner both at home or in a vehicle.
2.) 16 or more channels, to insure that you can monitor the large number of frequencies in & around a city.
3.) Search capability. With this you can search portions of the radio band, seeking out frequencies not listed in the directories.
4.) Able to pick up the following bands: 30 to 50 MHz (megahertz) - VHF Low Band 144 to 174 MHz -VHF High Band 440 to 512 MHz - UHF Band
Most of the scanners made by Regency & Uniden have these features & more. Once you get your scanner, listen to it at home. Locate the important frequencies in your target area. In addition to local law enforcement agencies, you can seek appropriate federal agencies (Forest Service, Park Service, BLM, etc.) & the frequencies assigned to the forest products industry (in Oregon & Washington, for example, these can be found at: 158.145, 158.160, 158.175, 158.205, 158.220, 158.235, 158.265, 173.250, 173.300, & 173.350). Federal law enforcement agencies (like the FBI, DEA, & BATF) are difficult to monitor. Even if you find their frequencies, they often use sophisticated scramblers, making the messages unintelligible. A source for the frequencies used by federal agencies is The "Top Secret" Registry of U.S. Government Radio Frequencies, by Tom Kneitel, available from Loompanics Unlimited, PO Box 1197, Port Townsend, WA 98368.
By listening at home, you will learn to understand much of the jargon you hear & to decipher the radio codes in use. Most common is the "10-code" that assigns meanings to numbers from "ten-one" to "ten-ninety-nine." Study the ten-codes in directories & pay attention to what you are hearing. Often an explanation of the call will be broadcast in plain English & in the 10-code. Police agencies may use codes based on the numbers assigned to various criminal statutes. For example, a "914" or "nine-fourteen" may refer to state number 12-914 for, say, armed robbery. The statute books in the referee section of a public library will give you the statute numbers. By listening to police radio calls & making notes, & comparing your notes to newspaper accounts of crime incidents, you can further break the codes. Another informative type of scanning to try at home is listening in to the private detective frequencies that carry surveillances. These channels are more active when detectives are usually at work, between 8 AM & 5 PM, Monday through Friday. You can, of course, hear some surveillances in the night hours. These detective frequencies are not as active as the standard frequencies, so you may want to use your scanner's "lock out" option to eliminate the patrol calls while listening for the detectives.
When searching for police frequencies, note the frequency numbers as you pick them up. The locations you hear broadcast over the air will indicate whether you are listening to a city or county agency. When learning about patrol frequencies, concentrate on weekend nights when police are usually busiest. Scanner reception is improved with a longer antenna, which attaches to the external antenna jack. Use the type of antenna that looks like a normal car antenna.
Police Band Radios. - It is hard to overstate the value of a radio capable of picking up police These units can tip you off to surveillance or warn you of a patrolman dispatched to the scene of a recent hit. Another valuable scanner is the hand-held type suitable for use by a team on the ground. These are the size of a walkie talkie & have most of the features of the larger units. A weak point is their standard short "rubber duckie" type of antenna. Use a longer more effective antenna. If the driver of a team's vehicle is monitoring police or agency calls, she should notify the rest of the team immediately by radio if it seems that the authorities are en route to the area. If you are using mobile vehicle units, make sure that you don't run down the car battery if you have to park for any length of time. Experiment ahead of time to find how long you can listen to the police radio & your own CB system before the battery is run down to the point where your vehicle won't start. The driver may have to drive around for 15 minutes or so to recharge the battery.
* In your pre-operational checks, replace weak batteries or re-charge nicads. Always keep your batteries wiped clean of fingerprints.
* As with all your radio equipment, test your police band radio or scanner under field conditions before taking it on an actual operation.
* Auxiliary power packs (plug-in) for radios & other devices that have a power input jack can easily be constructed using battery holders (Radio Shack Number 270-387 & others), 9 volt battery clips (RS #270-325), & co-axial plug connectors (RS #274-1571). Be sure to get the correct plug for your device & to observe the correct polarity when making these external battery packs.
*When working with scanners, be sure that you have the correct frequencies.
Military Surplus Radios - Army surplus PRT-4s (the RT stands for "radio transmitter"), PRR-9s (RR = "radio receiver"), & PRC-25s provide a low-cost, high quality communications system which might be of interest to monkeywrenchers. The PRT-4s & PRR-9s are Army squad radios that operate in the 47-57 megahertz bands. The transmitters use two 9-volt batteries (alkalines are a must!) & the receivers use either four 1.5-volt n-cells or a 9-volt battery with a 6-volt adapter. The transmitters put out about 450 milliamps of power which seems pretty good when you consider that the radio shack headphone mini-radios put out about 100 milliamps. Range for the PRT-4/PRR-9 is easily 1 1/2 miles line of-sight. Two PRT-4s with two PJ3R-9s cost the military $1,600 but can be purchased surplus in excellent working condition for $150 plus shipping ($5). Since these radios were constructed for the military, they have been considerably over-engineered & can take plenty of abuse. Transmitters have worked even after klutzy paratroopers dropped them from a thousand feet! Since these radios do not have an FCC approval stamp on them, it is illegal to use them-but not to own them. However, enforcement is difficult since the FCC would have to catch you in the act of transmission. Another advantage of these radios is that the transmitter & receiver are separate units. This allows two people to have a duplex system (i.e., I transmit on one frequency while I receive my friend's transmission on a second frequency). This decreases the possibility of someone scanning & picking up both sides of a conversation. Another advantage is that for another 70 bucks you can pick up. a piece of equipment called an ID-1189 which is a test machine that allows youto change frequencies once you buy new crystals which are about $6 each. Another advantage of the PRT-4/PRR-9 combination is that it can net with the larger 920-channel PRC-25. (A few weeks ago while out testing radio! was in a river bed & easily transmitted & received transmissions wit', PRC-25 that was over 5 1/2 miles away with three intervening ridge Unfortunately, the PRC-25 costs $650. Another military radio, the PRC-77, is one of the best & sturdiest radio It costs about $800. With a separate piece of unavailable equipment ($200-300) it has crypto-capability which would allow the user to encrypt their transmissions.
Cheap 3 or 5-channel walkie-talkies that you see at Radio Shack or at discount stores are crystal controlled. You can order crystals for any frequency you wish, in or near the CB band. By buying crystals for frequencies not designated as a CB channel, you reduce the chance of being overheard or jammed. Of course, you can never be absolutely sure that you have a frequency to yourself, since. there are sets around that can operate on any frequency. But these are not common, especially in rural areas, & are rarely installed in vehicles. Try 5 KHz above or below one of the designated CB channels. Say, 27.120 MHz (which would be 5 KHz above Channel 13-27.115-and 5 KHz below Channel 14-27.125). This small separation of 5 KHz, though, leaves the possibility of interference from nearby channels, & due to the lack of selectivity of many of the cheaper CBs, you might still be overheard, albeit probably not clearly. Anyway, it would be better to pick a frequency between the channels with 20 KHz separation. These frequencies would be 26.995 MHz (between channels 3-26.985 MHz-and 4-27.005 MHz), 27.045 MHz (between channels 7 & 8), 27.095 MHz (between channels 11 & 12), 27.145 MHz (between channels 15 & 16), & 27.195 MHz (between channels 19 & 20) These frequencies would give 10 KHz separation which should protect against interference from adjacent channels unless they are located very close by.
When you install (or change) the crystals in your walkie-talkie, retain one or two crystals for the official CB channels. Then you can communicate with someone using one of the newer CB sets which use a frequency synthesizer instead of crystals. These non-crystal sets can operate only on official channels. Until about 15 years ago, all CB sets were crystal-controlled. It still may be possible to find one of these old sets cheap at a flea market or CB repair shop. If you do, install it in your vehicle & put in crystals matching the ones you have put in your walkie-talkies.
Custom crystals can be obtained through several sources. Ask at your local CB repair shop, or anywhere "good buddies" congregate. You can also write to Jan Crystals, 2341 Crystal Drive, PO Box 06017, Ft. Meyers, Florida 339066017. Ask for their catalog & price list.
WARNING: Transmitting on a non-FCC-designated frequency is illegal & would subject the guilty party to federal charges should they be caught. Luckily, the Feds have just about given up trying to police the CB. But using a radio in the commission of a crime, whether on authorized or unauthorized channels, would likely get their attention.
Unusual CB Channels - The major drawback with CBs is their commonness. Here is a way to minimize these problems. The Citizens Band occupies the part of the radio spectrum between MHz (Channel 1) & 27.405 MHz (Channel 40). Most channels are 1 apart, but some (Channels 3 & 4, 7 & 8, 11 & 12, 15 & 16, 19 & 20) are 2 for operations requiring long-range communications. A few precautions with this type of equipment will lessen the chances of being overheard. A small terry cloth towel (dark color!), worn like a scarf under shirt or jacket, or carried in a pouch with the radio unit, can be used to muffle the sound of your voice. When transmitting & receiving, follow this procedure: Post other team members as lookouts, & to warn you if your radio or voice is too loud. Sit down cross-legged or kneel down with your back to the area of greatest danger. Cover your radio & head with the towel and/or a heavy jacket. Bend low to the ground, keeping the antenna straight up, & switch the set "on." Avoid long transmissions. Always use pre-arranged codes.
When using radios for key parts of an operation, such as calling the pickup vehicle after a mission is completed, always have a backup plan in the event of radio failure. (Your driver might swing by the pre-arranged pickup point at certain times, or automatically fall back to an alternate site.) Pre-arranged times for radio checks (example: every half hour at ten minutes & forty minutes after the hour) will help to insure proper radio links & build confidence.
* Try communicating with a code of clicks on the mikes instead of a possibly identifiable voice.
* Lookouts equipped with radios can improve your security greatly!
Radio Fingerprints - Every radio is unique; in fact, the term "radio fingerprint" is sometimes used, referring to minute variations in the transmission (frequency variations?) detectable each time the same radio is used. Sophisticated techniques are certainly necessary to identify a certain radio, & one's radio traffic would have to be recorded & analyzed. Nonetheless, that this is possible makes radio security all the more important. Because of this, limit the number & length of all radio transmissions while on the job. Encode your conversation so it doesn't sound suspicious. If you use a CB radio or walkie-talkies for covert activities, do not use the same radio openly. Comparison of the "fingerprints" from recorded radio traffic during an operation with that from the CB in your vehicle, for example, could be the link necessary in court to convict you.
Cellular Telephones - Cellular telephones are replacing radios in localities where there is good coverage from base stations (there is complete coverage, for example, in almost all metropolitan areas). Cellular phones have certain advantages over radios, among them simplicity of use.
Jamming & Deception Measures - The main aim of radar ECM (Electronic Countermeasures) is the application of electronic jamming & deception to reduce the efficiency of enemy air defence or surveillance radar. Electronic countermeasures may be merely based on data collected by Electronic Intelligence (ELINT), but then only provide limited adaption to the actual signal scenario. For optimum use of resources, jamming & deception signals have to be adapted to the actual victim radar signal. This is of special importance for modern radar systems with waveform & parameter agility. A prerequisite to optimum jamming & deception is exact interception & analysis of the radar signal (see also research area Passive Sensor Systems), & its retransmission after suitable modulation. "Cross-Eye" angle deception is an example for a deceptive electronic countermeasure.
2. Version 2.1.0 - Committee: Wireless Workshop - Guideline Abstract: The WICIS defines the operational requirements & technical specifications for the exchange of information needed for the Intercarrier Communication Process (ICP). The primary audience for this specification document is all Commercial Mobile Radio Service (CMRS) providers along with wireless equipment & service vendors who assist in the definition, development & deployment of Wireless Number Portability (WNP) solutions. It assumes the reader is familiar with WNP & the wireless telecommunications technologies. This document is not intended to supercede any regulatory decision regarding Number Portability or Intercarrier Communications, but is intended to describe the process & specifications as it involves CMRS.
Russian private technicians help train Iraqis to use electronic jamming systems that could endanger US forces in Iraq. Bush telephoned Putin to protest alleged sales of night-vision goggles, anti-tank missiles & global positioning system (GPS) jamming systems to Iraq. Such sales violate UN sanctions. "It's the kind of equipment that will put our men in harm's way," said Secretary of State Colin Powell. "It gives an advantage to the enemy - an advantage we don't want them to have. Washington worried about the sales for a year & protested to Moscow at increasingly senior levels.For years, the US has, with limited success, asked Russia not to spread weapons technology, notably to Iran, where US officials complain Moscow has sold missile technology. The US has pushed Russia to tighten export controls to prevent private firms from making such sales. a Russian company was helping the Iraqi military deploy electronic jamming equipment against US planes & bombs, & two others had sold anti-tank missiles & thousands of night-vision goggles. A US official said there were signs some of the material may have been listed as bound for Syria or Yemen to hide its intended destination. Reuters
4.  http://www.detectnu.nl/shop/index.php/cPath/60_84/sort/2a/language/en
Cell Phone Jammer M-20 - [G40366] 799.00EUR
Suitable for use in cellular phones restricted areas such as in the hospitals, libraries, theatre, school & prisons.
Ensure a cellular phone communication-free environment for a desired period of time. Prevent information from being revealed during meetings. Disconnects linkage between cellular hand-set & cellular base station.
Frequency/Bandwidth:CDMA 870MHz ~ 890MHz GSM 935MHz ~ 960MHz. DCS 1805MHz ~1855MHz PHS 1900Mhz ~ 1920MHz, 3G 2110MHz~2170MHz
1.Hand-Held Design2.Output Power: 800mW3.Jamming: 5-10 Meters (radius)4.Power Supply: DC 6V Built-In
5.Size: 72x58x25mm, 6.Weigh: 200g - Note - The use of cellular telephone jamming equipment is prohibited in some countries. It is the responsibility of the customer to ensure that they have the legal right to import these products before purchasing through us. Upon purchasing, the customer becomes wholly liable for any legal issues that may occur as a result of the importation and/or use of these products in the destination country.
G-LP Jammer - [O80106] 1,199.00EUR - G-LP is a high quality low power jamming device for mobile communications.
The LP cell phone jammer unit is intended for blocking all mobile phone types within designated indoor areas. Its unique design combines effective jamming in a radius between 5-80 meters (depending on cellular signal strength at site) & strict compliance with international standards of safety & electromagnetic compatibility. Acoustic Isolation for Theaters/cinemas • Concert halls • Lecture rooms/libraries Exclusive restaurants • TrainsSecurity & PrivacyPrisons • Court houses • Conference rooms • Embassies Government facilities • Financial institutions • Gaming facilities Sensitive locations • Recording studiosHealth & SafetyGas stations • Power plants • Industrial plants • Hospitals Aircraft
UNIQUE FEATURES- G-LP cell phone jammer is the only product that has been certified to meet safety & electromagnetic compatibility requirements of the European union (CE). - SALE CONDITIONS FOR CELLULAR JAMMING PRODUCTS - High Power Jammer =- [O80107] 0.00EUR = Price on request.
G-HP is a ruggadized, portable weather-proof jamming system built into a Pelican case.
The HP unit is designed for blocking mobile communications for security purposes in a variety of scenarios, both indoors & outdoors. APPLICATIONS-- Prisons Bomb squads VIP protection Military bases Police forces Riot control
KEY FEATURES : Self contained, portable & weather proof Internal antenna(s) with optional external ANTs
Remote controlled Optional internal battery operation Effective jamming range of 20-1000 meters (depending on cellular signal strength at site)
Detectnu Products, leverancier in speciale beveiliging- Velperplein 19 6811 AH Arnhem the Netherlands T: +31(0)26-4459343- F: +31(0)26-3510993 - E:  info@detectnu.nl W: www.detectnu.nl KvK: 08096163 - IBAN NL64.SNSB.0951.4789.90
TRANSMISSION - RF Power per module 30W max (15W per band)
Signal source PLL synthesized
Input power 110/220 Vac or 24 Vdc regulated
Modules per unit single/dual/triple band
Remote control Infrared
Internal antennae Internal directional antenna(s), 8 dBi gain
External antennae - (opt.) Via N-type connectors
Frequency bands 851/869 ~ 894 MHz - 925/935 ~ 960 MHz - 1805 ~ 1880 MHz - 1930 ~ 1990 MHz
2110 ~ 2170 MHz
Air interface standards Analog: AMPS, N-AMPS, NMT, TACS -- Digital: GSM, CDMA, TDMA, iDEN, UMTS
PHYSICAL - Size 320mm x 420mm x 160mm (Pelican 1470) - 350mm x 470mm x 170mm (Pelican 1500)
Weight (w/o battery) 17 kg (dual band standard configuration) - Weight (with opt. battery) 22 Kg (dual band w/ internal battery)
ENVIRONMENTAL - Operating temperature 0°C to 45°C - Humidity 5% to 80%
ACCESSORIES - Rechargeable battery 6 AH - KvK: 08096163 - IBAN NL64.SNSB.0951.4789.90
LP Cellular Phone Jammer - [A20222] 1,269.00EUR - The LP Cellular Phone Jammer has been specifically designed for the following commercial & professional applications: Conferences & business meetings - Government & military buildings - Work places - Places of worship - Public libraries - Hospitals - Places of public entertainment - Banks
The LP is a cellular phone jammer suitable for a wide range of professional applications where jamming precision & reliability are paramount. An important feature is the ability of the user to adjust the output by IF remote control, ensuring that the jamming capability of the unit does not intrude beyond where it is required.Each channel module has an internal antenna & maximum output power of 500 mW (total 1W). Various optional accessories are available, including rechargeable battery pack, external antenna, reflector mounting panel & remote control. The LP is designed for fixed omni-directional installation. A remote control is included as standard. The above systems utilise a unique transmission method that confuses the decoding circuits of cellular handsets as if no cellular base station is within the service area. Upon activating LP, all idle phones will indicate "NO SERVICE". Consequently, all cellular phone calls already in progress within the defined area will be cut-off & the radio link will be lost. When activated, incoming calls are handled as if the cellular handset is OFF & calls may be routed into a voice mailbox. When LP is turned off, all cellular handsets will automatically re-establish communications with the cellular network.
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS:RF Power output: 0.5W per channel (max); 1mW (min)
antennas type: ¼ wave internal omni-directional - antennas polarization: circular
Maximum power consumption: 3.6W
Dimensions: 195mm x 115mm x 45mm - Weight: 500g
Operating temperature range: 0C - +50C
Controls & indicators: ON / OFF switch; TX Power Control; Power ON LED / Software reports; Built in test LED
IR head lamp 249.00EUR - This IR headlamp is for use in combination with Night Vision devices.
Normally you can't see infra red light, but with a nightvision device you can spot it from a large distance. In this way you can easily keep track of your own crew.
Spyphone pro 3100[B20564] 1,149.00EUR b>The great thing is that this phone also really works After entering your phone number (let's call it 'privileged number') in SpyPhone's secret menu & restarting, the phone is ready for use. When you call SpyPhone from the privileged number that you previously programmed, SpyPhone automatically answers the call without ringing, vibrating, blinking & freezes display. You can hear everything around SpyPhone (it acts like 'bug'). After call is ended phone restores to normal operation. If call is made from any other number than programmed, SpyPhone will operate as normal phone.
100KHz ~ 2000MHz ALL-MODE Communications Receiver
[DJ-X10] 589.00EUR
Experience the world of radio communications with this wide band all mode receiver Besides local & overseas broadcasts, the DJ-X10 can receive emergency services, amateur & CB radios, TV audio, trains, taxis, weather, government, military & business services. In fact the choice is only restricted by you. Advanced features can be used easily by beginners by selecting the beginner-mode, while experienced users may select the expert-mode to execute top-notch operation
Specifications: Frequency range: 100kHz - 2000MHz
Memories: 1200
Antenna Connector: BNC
Power supply: 13.8VDC - Weight: 320g - Size: 57W x 150H x 27.5Dmm
ADJV5 VHF/UHF Dualband Handheld - [DJV5] 419.00EUR
The Alinco DJ-V5 offers better value than ever before! Housed in a rugged case it is solidly constructed, with easy to use menus & outstanding audio quality. Its hefty 5W output ensures maximum possible range too!
Features: Full VHF + UHF Amateur Band coverage - Expandable Receive Range, (76 - 999MHz)
Wide FM for FM broadcast - Up to 5W output (3 output settings: 0.5W, 1W, 5W)
200 memory channels plus two call channels - Programmed Scan - Scans channels programmed in memory for dedicated frequency range. - Priority Watch - monitors priority channel every 5 seconds
- Alphanumeric Display - CTCSS Encode + Decode, DTMF squelch & 4 different European Tone Bursts
Input voltage display with over voltage warning - Autodial memories - Automatic high temperature protection feature
SMA antenna connector - Eight different tuning steps
Wire cloning capability - Ideal for Packet operation
Auto Power off - Battery save function
Encrypted Modular Transmitter XE-60 [A20177] 779.00EUR - The XE60 has been developed for the purpose of evidence gathering & agent protection. All transmissions are encrypted for additional security. The unit consists of a transmitter with plug-in adaptors. For each application the appropriate adaptor is connected. The device may be used as a battery-operated room transmitter with external microphone. Alternatively it may be connected to a DC power supply (7.5 to 12V) - e.g. vehicle battery - The matching receiver for this product is XE60RX
FREQUENCY RANGE-135-220MHz (VHF) 350-960MHz (UHF)
FREQUENCY STABILITY .0005% of assigned channel
ANTENNA Flexible cable - MICROPHONE Internal or external electret
POWER REQUIREMENT 7.5 - 12V - OPERATING TEMPERATURE -10 to +60°C - SIZE 51 x 25 x 10mm
FEATURES Plug-in adaptor for body-worn use Plug-in adaptor for vehicle usAudio Repeater System RSA-200
[A20186] 2,199.00EUR Relay stations will be the critical element where distance between the target area & a suitable monitoring site extends beyond the range of a one-hop transmission link. - Detectnu can meet customer specifications for the operating frequency & transmitter power.
CHARGING METHOD 240V current limited charger or 12V car adaptor
RECEIVER Crystal-controlled, 4 channel
TRANSMITTER Crystal-controlled, 1 channel
OPERATING FREQUENCIES Customer specified between 135 to 220MHz (VHF) or 395 to 950MHz (UHF)
OUTPUT POWER 5W standard; up to 20W if required
TRANSMISSION FORMAT Normal or encrypted
FEATURES INCLUDE Channel select signal strength meter squelch control volume control headphone output
Cryptophone (Price on request)[G40351] 100,000,000.00EUR - we are the official distributor of the cryptophone for Belgium, Luxemburg & the Netherlands The first secure mobile phone that comes with full source code available for independent review - is available now. Finally, you can perform a independent assessment to ensure that there is no weak encryption & no backdoors in the device you entrust your telecommunications security to. You don't have to believe us when we say it is secure - you can verify that claim yourself. The GSMK CryptoPhone is not a black-box-device with scarce technical information, like other products in the market ensuring your voice´s privacy Strongest & most secure algorithms available today AES256 & Twofish 4096 bit Diffie-Hellman key exchange with SHA256 hash function Readout-hash based key authentication 256 bit effective key length encryption key is destroyed as soon as the call ends Source code available online for independent security assessments also supports unencrypted calls, unencrypted SMS, address book, calendar etc. works in any 900/1800 GSM network that provides data call facilities Standby: 150 hours Talk time: Secure up to 3 hours 15 minutes /Unsecured up to 3 hours 30 minutes Please contact us for more information & prices. - Download this file for more info : cryptphone2.bmp
Noise Generator II [A20150] 789.00EUR Protection for walls, window & doors. The device offers protection against electronic Stethoscopes, Stethoscope sender & Laser directional microphones.
A contact resonator is placed on a wall or sill where you suspect the threat comes from & is connected by means of cable with the drive unit. The noise generator produces a strong signal & makes eavesdropping almost impossible with the above mentioned products. Delivery: with 4 contactresonatoren, expandable over 16 rooms - Specification tension provision: 12V network component NF-Spectrum: exit optimizes - on frequenz (seegraphics) : 2 canals adjustable (16 exits) cable length per Kontaktresonator: 5m - Description operation instructions: The noise generator sends out a rustling, with which the microphones of countersurveilance well known today become "clogs". Therefore only an ncomprehensible result can be transmitted. The rustling is clearly audible in the room. However it disturbs persons fewer because persons hear "through two ears" deliberately & differentiated. Sounds important we filter therefore for us even if noise surrounds us. Abhörtechnik cannot control this "intelligence", is moreover a differentiation with a microphone not possible. The rustling represents a regular „frequency chaos", which impossibly makes the transmitting of intelligible signals. One sees prevent should this effect also again & again in espionage film, the famous „running water tap", whose rustling a monitoring.. . The Kontaktresonator deliver is a real rustling over the Sprachband, in which room, that on 2 canals adjustable to volume. It so should be adjusted that it is clearly audible, but particularly does not disturb also in normal conversations. A wall is assumed, out of which monitored become could, are to be mounted the Resonatoren there and/or are to be arranged there there. A monitoring of the relevant room and/or area through microphones, minus transmitter & / or Stethoskope becomes so impeded and/or prevented. The more loudly the rustling is adjusted, all the more more effective the system becomes. So aimed can rooms and/or area protected become whereby the level variably is & can reduce become also as required. The Kontaktresonatoren are glued simple on the wall, window, door etc. (Klebemasse lies in). Eighth you on firm pressure of the area. A monitoring of the relevant wall etc. with Stethoskopsystemen or Laserabhörsystemen so is prevented. So aimed can walls & disks which abhörgefährdet are, protected become.
Available Options: Extra Resonator (+89.00EUR)2 Extra Resonators (+159.00EUR)4 extra Resonators (+299.00EUR)  http://www.detectnu.nl/shop/index.php/cPath/89

5. Security device saved Pakistan's president - An electronic jamming device installed in the limousine of President Pervez Musharraf of Pakistan delayed a remote controlled explosion on a road bridge by seconds, allowing him to escape with his life. The bomb was sophisticated, involving remote control & timing devices, & it was believed to be the work of al-Qaida. The 250kg (550lb) bomb destroyed a road bridge on Sunday, less than a minute after Mr Musharraf's motorcade had passed. Officials said the jamming device, similar to that used on airliners, was responsible for the delay. The jammers work by emitting a magnetic impulse to block frequencies used to trigger explosive devices - including the electronic signals from precision timers. Defence analyst Talat Masood said that security agencies worldwide used such equipment for the security of dignitaries & it had been imported to Pakistan.

Fire mortars & many weapons more in the daytime as US sensors & night vision do not work as well. Iraqi mortar groups set up ambushes to act as blocks to protect the mortar crews who are escaping after an attack.

rewire 19.Nov.2005 12:38

gigs16@aapt.net.au gigs16@aapt.net.au

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