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Want to know the hardware behind Echelon?

You've probably heard about Echelon, the vast listening system run by the US, UK, Canada and Australia that scans the world's voice traffic looking for key words and phrases.

Aside from using the system for industrial espionage and bypassing international and national laws to listen in on people, it is also used to listen out for people like Osama bin Laden and assorted terrorists in the hope of preventing attacks.

All this is out in the relative open thanks to investigative journalists and a European Commission report into the system, concerned and annoyed that the Brits and Yanks has got there first.
Want to know the hardware behind Echelon?
Uncle Sam using Texas' SAM.

By Chris Mellor, Techworld

You've probably heard about Echelon, the vast listening system run by the US, UK, Canada and Australia that scans the world's voice traffic looking for key words and phrases.

Aside from using the system for industrial espionage and bypassing international and national laws to listen in on people, it is also used to listen out for people like Osama bin Laden and assorted terrorists in the hope of preventing attacks.

All this is out in the relative open thanks to investigative journalists and a European Commission report into the system, concerned and annoyed that the Brits and Yanks has got there first.

It works like this: The calls are recorded by geo-stationary spy satellites and listening stations, such as the UK's Menwith Hill, which combine satellite-intercepted calls and trunk landline intercepts and forward them on to centres, such as the US' Fort Meade, where supercomputers work on the recordings in real time.

But what, you ask, can deal with that overwhelming mass of data that helps our government spy on the world? And how does it work?

Well, a Texas Memory Systems SAM product - a combined solid-state disk (SSD) and DSP (digital signal processor). Woody Hutsell, an executive VP at TMS, said: "Fifty percent of our revenue this year will come from DSP systems, more than last year. The systems are a combination of SSD with DSP ASICs." ASICs are application-specific integrated circuits - chips dedicated to a specific purpose.

TMS has a TM-44 DSP chip which has 8 GFLOPS of processing power - that's eight billion floating point operations per second. The processing uses floating point arithmatic operations to supply the accuracy needed for the analysis. A DSP chip turns analogue signals from a sensor or recorder into digital information usable by a computer. Digital cameras will use a DSP to turn the light signals coming through the lens into digital picture element, or pixel, information.

A SAM-650 product is called a 192 GFLOPS DSP supercomputer by TMS. It is just 3U high and has 24 DSP chips and is positioned as a back-end number cruncher controlled by any standard server - a similar architecture to that used by Cray supercomputers. There are vast streams of information coming from recorded telephone conversations. The ability to have the DSPs work in parallel speeds up analysis enormously. Spinning hard drives can't feed the DSPs fast enough, nor are they quick enough for subsequent software analysis of the data. Consequently TMS uses its solid state technology to provide a buffer up to 32GB that keeps the DSPs operating at full speed.

A cluster of five SAM-650's provides a terra flop of processing power; one trillion floating point operations per second.

Echelon is a global surveillance network set up in Cold War days to provide the US goverment with intelligence data about Russia. One of the main contractors is Raytheon. Lockheed Martin has been involved in writing software for it. Since then it has expanded into a general listening facility, an electronic vacuum cleaner, sucking up the world's telephone conversations. Information about it's existence has been reluctantly revealed, prompted by scandals such as the recordings of Princess Diana's telephone calls by the NSA.

Recorded signals are fed into the TMS SAM systems where the DSPs filter out the noise to produce much clearer signals that software can work on to detect individual voices, perform voice recognition, and listen out for keywords, such as, for example, "Semtex". Decryption of encrypted calls is also a likely activity.

Hutsell says the SAM systems, "are supplied to intelligence agencies and the military though system integrators like Raytheon, Lockheed Martin and Zeta. It's an intelligence community application involving data from various sources. This is loaded into RAM and then real-time analysis is carried out on it. Step one is to filter out the noise and our DSP chips are used for that. Then they look into patterns using other tools - images or voice. It's very high-speed."

TMS has supplied its RAMsan high-speed SSD technology to several US government agencies. Hutsell said, "We have recently sold another terabyte system to a federal agency. It's installed in the DC [District of Columbia] area via our partner Vion. There's another in a government data centre with Oracle indices that needed to be accelerated."

TMS has had 40 percent year on year growth for three years. It has no debt and is privately-owned. Hutsell said: "This year is the healthiest year ever." Half the company's revenue comes from the government sector.

Fast, very fast, database and recorded signal access is the name of this game. The US government wants to know what you and I are talking about. Spy in the sky satellites listen in to what we say and look at what we do. Then solid state disk keeps the real time analysis of these calls and images operating at full speed. The world's fastest storage system is used in the world's most sophisticated spying operation.

Impressive and scary at the same time.

homepage: homepage: http://www.techworld.com/storage/news/index.cfm?NewsID=2430

USERS OF INTERNET EXPLORER: 25.Oct.2004 14:48

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the math. 25.Oct.2004 14:55

this thing here

this system scans 100% of the data to find, for example, the .01% of what it is interested in.

this means that 100% are guilty until 99.99% are proven innocent.

here we see the world of law, innocent until proven guilty, contravened to meet the operational demands of digital technology, as applied by government authority.

anything that is processed into 1 and 0's, and is transmitted over some kind of signal, whether through the air, through fiber optics, or through wire, is apparently capable of being monitored. is there really such thing as privacy in this world, once your voice becomes electrical pulses? no. is there really such thing as encryption anymore? no.

if you have something important to say, and say it directly to the person's ear. once it get's sucked up into the world of 1 and 0, it's no longer "yours"...

saying "i'm not doing anything wrong so why should i care" misses the point. this is exactly the same as saying that since a dumb person cannot speak, they don't need the protection of the first amendment.

Not really 26.Oct.2004 00:00

Bison Boy

"Want to know the hardware behind Echelon?"

No, not really. I suppose it's of some passing technical interest, but I imagine the hardware configuration changes frequently.

TTH:
"anything that is processed into 1 and 0's, and is transmitted over some kind of signal, whether through the air, through fiber optics, or through wire, is apparently capable of being monitored. is there really such thing as privacy in this world, once your voice becomes electrical pulses? no. is there really such thing as encryption anymore? no."

It is theoretically possible for a determined organization to monitor everything an individual does, digital or not. The resources consumed would be vast, but it is *possible*.

The good news is that the resources required are so vast that this level of surveillance is unacheiveable on a mass scale. Echelon tries to address part of this gap, of course, but even it has limits. I'm guessing that the data scanned must be carefully pre-selected. Not to ensure anyone's privacy, but to trim the mass of incoming data to a manageable bandwith.

The bad news is that if they're out to get you specifically, it'll be very hard indeed to keep your affairs private. They'll bug your computer and phone, but they'll also use parabolic microphones and traditional tails. Not much mere mortals can do about that.

But there *is* practical security to be had for one's online activities. Look at the OpenBSD project. So long as you can trust the hardware it runs on, OpenBSD can keep your stuff private. While nothing is bulletproof, OpenBSD is the next best thing to it.