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Break The Chains workshop on the Basque Struggle

Since I'm aware that this one hour workshop was intended to help us to go further in our understanding of the struggle of the Basque people, I will summarize what I got out of this lecture and also will include some of what I am learning on the websites and with other support groups that were referenced, so interested folks can work on getting more information about this unique group with a similar struggle that anti-authoritarians could learn from and support. The summary of events is incomplete and can be found in it's entirety at www.baskinfo.org
This workshop was given by a member of the Jericho Movement. The description in the Break the Chains program went something like: This workshop will focus on the Basque struggle, and the formation of the completely separate (armed wing) ETA and the consequences of the decision to split the armed struggle from the party development wing, both focused on the goal of building a Basque society. The presenter looked at reports on political prisoners, the question of torture, and the attempts of the Spanish and French State to destroy their struggle and to label all Basques working for self-determination as "terrorists". The websites given to find out more were:  http://www.behatokia.info/boletin.php. and  http://www.baskinfo.org and  askapenal@euskalnet.net was given as a contact; Another resource that was recommended emphatically is easily available in it's entirety online; it's called The Basque History Of The World, by Mark Kurlansky; Walker, 1999. I found it at:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=70121745

In Spain there are apparently 2 areas that want to secede, Catelonia and the Basque Nation. The UN and the EU has put the Basques on their list of terrorist organizations. The torture tactics described, involving everything from brutal beatings, smothering, electroshock of brain, skin, genitals, water poured into mouth until it comes out the ears, and other horrifying acts of terror imposed by the Spanish and French were nearly unimaginable. The language spoken by the Basque people is like no other language. In the Basque lands their language is very significant and of paramount importance to retain. It is a major symbol of their cultural identity.

Restrictions on the use of their language have been placed on them in the past, often not allowed to be taught in the schools or spoken on the street. These people consider themselves to be the oldest remaining descendants of Cro-Magnum People. (Later I learned that DNA tests bear this out, that RH negative blood type, extremely rare in other populations, actually is the norm in the Basque population, and that it is being discovered that some Neanderthals also had this blood type predominate). They have local collectively set up governance that is often superseded against their wishes by the governance of The State; they reside in 4 counties in Spain and 3 counties in France. This area was once called Nevarre, and seems to be still called this by the Basque people. They allow anyone to live there if they learn the language and agree to abide by their policies.

Wearing Basque T-shirts is cause for imprisonment. Speaking their own language has off and on over the decades been restricted in various ways, although they have continued to speak it in their homes throughout these attempts to redefine their culture by eliminating their unique and ancient language. The Basques wish for the international community to make the Spanish and French governments aware that we want the Basques to be allowed to pursue their struggle for self-determination free of torture and other brutal human rights abuses. They have translated their website into many different languages to make it possible for the world to understand the seriousness of their situation and help by writing letters and coming to visit. Basques who travel to raise awareness are arrested on their return, beaten, jailed, tortured, and if they survive, they are never allowed to leave their country to speak on the issues ever again.

Presently there are 558 Basque political prisoners in the prisons of the Spanish and French States, 479 of which are imprisoned in the prisons of the Spanish State, 73 in the French State, 1 in London, 2 in Montreal, and 1 in Montevido. Since 1978, the year in which committal to prison began again after the 1978 amnesty, governmental bodies have imposed 3 phases of penitentiary regimes. Initially prisoners were kept in Basque lands, enabling easy visitation. Now, since 1981 they have been kept a thousand kilometers away in 3 high security prisons, 2 for men, and 1 for women. Here the highest security conditions exist, enforced by the National State Security Forces, which operate both inside and outside the prisons to carry out a terror campaign on prisoners and their family and friends.

The Basques run their government collectively. Decisions are made democratically, taking the peoples' feelings into consideration when making decisions affecting their people. Judges in the Basque lands are simply respected elders. They try to work out constructive solutions to problems (relocation, community work, counselling) before turning cases over to the State System. The Leftist Batasuna party became an autonomous Basque Union that is working for socialist governance.Other parties exist. Ertianintza is the legal armed forces branch of the Basque people. Solidarity-Building with other people and countries is very important to these people. In the '70s the Batasuna party split completely with the militant armed faction, called ETA, which formed in the '40's after the Spanish Revolution was co-opted by the communist party, resulting in the persecution and jailing of the anarchists and socialists who had held down the front lines and held off the fascist forces of Moussellini and Hitler during 1936 and 1937, successfully keeping these forces out of the Spanish Front of Europe even after it was clear there would be a Communist regime instead of their envisioned Utopia (Read Homage to Catelonia for George Orwell's first-hand account of this situation).

The level of persecution experienced by the Basque people is amplified when their people end up in Spanish prisons. Visits from family members are discouraged. If more than one child is in prison, they are placed in different prisons, in remote areas as far away from Basque territory as possible. Visits are one hour long. This means that parents and relatives are kept busy driving hundreds of miles to see each child for an hour each. Since Basques are considered part of a terrorist organization (even though the armed wing called ETA has been clearly separate from the Nation-Building majority in the Basque lands for well over 30 years) when in prison they are put in maximum security areas where security concerns take precedence over human rights. Over the decades, hunger strikes and incommunicado strikes (locking oneself in for 24 hours a day, refusing even visits with family members) have been used to regain basic human rights and dignity. The damaging effects of these acts of protest by prisoners are still felt today.
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Some of the more Recent Events taken from the Baskinfo.org website:

After rigged elections in April and May, where the Spanish Government actively stopped any from the Batasuna party of the Basques from gaining seats in the parliament, there was a series of events that culminated on May 9th 2003, the only newspaper written in Basque, Egunkaria, being declared illegal and shut down by Spain. In San Fransisco there was protest the 26th of April at the Spanish consulate against the closing of Egunkaria.

On May Day, many things happened all at once; All Basque trade unions demonstrate together with thousands of people and demand democracy, justice and self-determination for the Basque Country. The outlawing of Egunkaria, Batasuna and Udalbiltza is called a 'coup' within the state; A group of 530 Basque priests hands over a letter to pope John Paul, visiting Spain, in which they press for recognition of the right of self-determination for the Basque people. These priests reject all forms of terrorism, "especially the kind of terrorism of the State and those who are in power". Also the Spanish government as well as the public prosecutor appeal at the Tribunal Supremo against the registration of AuB (Autonomous Basque Union) and the 286 platforms. According to them all lists where former Batasuna-members candidates 'infected' and for that reason were seen as a candidate for Batasuna. AuB complains firmly and asks, among others, whether this means that the Batasuna-members lost their right to be elected just like that, without jurisdical intervention. After some days of heavy political pressure, almost all members of the Spanish government decided to be convinced that the outlawing of AuB was the right thing to do, and so did the Tribunal Supremo at the 3th of May." AuB declared anyway entering the elections with their owns forms. The strange situation occurs now that in 15 Basque villages the governing Partido Popular will win the elections anyway, being the only party to contest. In 10 villages in Naffaroa there will be no elections at all, because AuB was the only party candidating there."
In the meantime prime-minister Aznar continues his campaign to criminalize every form of opposition in Spain; this week he launched a proposition which makes it illegal to organise 'public activities' or spread 'false' information, which lower the moral of the people or would provoke disobedience towards the Spanish army or the army of an ally!
May 5th: During the visit of Aznar to Bush, it is announced that Powell had put the Basque political parties Herri Batasuna, Euskal Herritarok and Batasuna on the US-list of terrorist organisations at the end of april. This makes it possible for the US to take for example financial actions against these organisations or prosecute them in the US.
May 9 12,000 Batasuna people voted illegally anyway after Batasuna party was declared illegal and not allowed to vote. On this day thousands of people demonstrate and strike throughout the Basque Country with the slogan 'Euskal Herria aurrera' (Forward with the Basque Country) and against the outlawing of AuB. The Basque regional police (Ertzaintza) goes in with force, in Bilbao the city hall is stormed and 150 people are beaten out. The moderate Basque nationalists from the PNV and EA declare in a statement that they won't take any action against the outlawing of AuB and call to the independentists not to vote 'invalid' (what a vote for AuB will be officially) because it will benefit the Spanish parties PP, UPN and PSOE. In Irun at the 9th of May Oier Imaz gets arrested by the Spanish police at orders of the Audiencia Nacional and is taken over to a prison in Madrid where he will face great risk of being tortured. Imaz is accused of participating in a campaign for boycotting tourism to Spain.
May 10th tens of thousands of people demonstrate in the Basque capital Bilbao, despite a double prohibition by the Basque government, against the outlawing of Udalbiltza, and behind the motto 'Bai Udalbiltza, Bai Euskal Herriari' (Yes to Udalbiltza, Yes to the Basque Country). The demonstration is without incidents, but the organisers will be prosecuted by the Basque ministry of Internal Affairs. At this point, the campaign for the support of the closed newspaper Egunkaria by 4 organisations which preaches civil disobedience, has a list of 2.100 signatures of people who plead guilty of helping and supporting Egunkaria. In Catalonia 229 accused them-selves.
The Basque armed organisation ETA calls people to vote at the elections of 25 May for the 1.500 banned candidates. ETA also declared to have ended an internal debate and soon will reveal the result. And ETA declared at the Basque television (ETB) that there is no cease-fire and that ETA will not disarm as long as the Basque people don't have the right for self-determination. The Spanish justice department starts an investigation into ETB for broadcasting the declaration.As the May 25th elections approach, the Spanish authorities try in every way to silence the voice of the left independent movement. During the spreading of posters with critics on the coming elections, 15 persons got arrested in Duesto by the Ertzaintza, while in other districts people, who once in the eighties stood as candidate for the now outlawed Herri Batasuna and now wanted to work at the polling booth, where forbidden to work there because they were 'registered' by the Spanish police. Most of them worked in previous elections at the polling booths. At the 17th of May in Donostia the police seized 40.000 voting-papers of the left platform 'Boga Boga' and of the outlawed platform for self-determination AuB. To try to reach as many people as possible, AuB gives out the voting-papers now through Internet. AuB also sent the papers to the Spanish king, to Aznar and people from the governing PP and PSOE.
Meetings of AuB, because of who's outlawed, 270,000 Basques who can't vote for the party they want to vote for, were also forbidden; May 20th, 5000 people in Donstia were denied entrance at the football-stadium of Real Sociedad by heavily armed Ertzaintza's, the Basque riot-police. They also blocked the entrance of a sport-hall, where also 5000 people wanted to participate in an election meeting. The Ertzaintza finally shot with rubber bullets into the crowd (rubber-balls in fact, bigger than a squash-ball). In the first pre-election inquiries AuB would get 160,000 votes in Hegoalde, the South of the Basque Country. Despite all that, we can see that a big amount of the voters used the AuB ballot-papers and even became the biggest in some villages. In the whole of the Southern Basque Country AuB became the fourth biggest party. In the counting of the votes by the Spanish interior ministry the votes for AuB were declared non-valid. Therefore 3.500 independent observaters (from a.o. South- Africa, Ireland, Scotland, Italy) counted the votes for AuB separately; it will be important for the European Court to challenge the outlawing of AuB.
Results in the four Spanish-Basque provinces:
Total votes: 1.583.483

1. PNV/EA: 514.145
2. PSOE: 313.373
3. PP: 312.325
4. AuB: 168.431
5. IU: 111.870
6. Aralar: 31.253
It is important to note that the parties who are promoting the right to self- determination for the Basque people again won the majority of the votes. PNV/EA, AuB, IU and Aralar won together 825.699 votes, and the promoters of The Spanish Constitution, as it is, the PP and the PSOE, won 625.698 votes. PNV/EA has now 1.373 councillors, AuB 579, the PP/UPN 534 and the PP/PSOE 514. The IU has now 106 councillors.

On May 30th, ETA placed a car bomb that exploded into a car of a Spanish police car in Sanguesse/Navarre, killing 2 and injuring one, slightly injuring a nearby worker June 7th 2003, the Basque Social Forum was born. June 21st the new Basque paper called Berria hit the streets, with new ideas to show differing viewpoints as much as possible, with the editor again being the same editor that was brutally arrested and tortured when the previous paper, Egunkaria was declared illegal and shut down.

June 14th the installation of various unfairly elected city councils into the Basque Country leads to arrests and riots. In different places protestors occupied town halls or gathered in front to protest against the undemocratic elections of the 25th of May, where the party AuB of the left independent movement was excluded from elections. Thousands of people demanded that the 579 AuB councillors who were voted (illegally) in, would be granted access to the city councils. In Donosti the authorities tried to outrun the protests by setting the installation at 09.00 am. While the mayor was sworn in, the Basque police Ertzaintza attacked the 100 protesters outside, who were having a peaceful sit-in. Three councillors of AuB were arrested. In Hernani, where the also outlawed local branch of the AuB won the elections and where the left independentists were the biggest for years and years and also have the mayor, the installation was cancelled because of the occupation of the city hall. Two members of the IU (United Left) came to read a statement denouncing the exclusion of the left independentists, but the former mayor of Hernani, Mertxe Etxeberria, answered that the exclusion was made possible by the cooperation of other parties, including IU.
This same evening, thousands of people gather in the Velodrome in Donosti to celebrate the launching of the new Basque Daily Newspaper Berria (New). The objective of the new board is to, just as their by temporary measure closed predecessor Egunkaria, to spread news about the Basque Country and the world in a plural and independent way, sell 25,000 copies each day and be present on the Internet in English also. With the same director, partly the same employees and the same objectives, Berria could risk closure as well.
The anarchist group Cruz Negra Anarquista (CAN), part of the world wide network Anarchist Black Cross (ABC), is accused by the notorious judge Garzón of being the 'recruiting machine of the terrorist organisation GRAPO (Grupo Resistencia Antifascista Primero de Octobre)'. With this verdict the Spanish police can block bank accounts and close buildings of CAN.

June 14th A large ceremony accompanied the opening of this new paper, along with the images on a huge screen of the Egunkaria's closure and of the marches in favor of it that ensued in Barcelona. By June 21 this new paper was being distributed on the streets.

June 15th, 300 people demonstrate in Amsterdam for the release of Juanra with the motto 'Spain tortures, free Juanra!'. For pictures, check www.freejuanra.org/nl/03- 06-15-2.html
June 16th, the Guardia Civil starts the eviction of the Basque village Itoiz, Naffaroa, near the weir of Itoiz. Nine villages have to be destroyed, six others will be evicted partly and the lake will damage four natural parks. The Spanish authorities need water for the luxurious tourism across Spain for pools and golf courses. For 15 years now there have been protests against the building of the weir, a plan derived from Franco's brain. In 1996 activists of the group Solidarios con Itoiz sabotaged the construction site, holding the work for over a year. For that action there's still one activist in jail.
Two days later, at Wednesday the 18th of June, the Guardia Civil still hadn't managed to evict the village entirely. In one of the houses activists built a bunker, where they could hold out for a long time. During actions and demonstrations 40 people got arrested and people have been wounded by baton-wielding police officers and by rubber bullets. In the end the activists asked the fire brigade to come and liberate them, because the Guardia Civil was tearing down supporting walls from houses, endangering the people severely. That night in a lot of places in the Basque Country are protests against the eviction of Itoiz.
June 19th ETA reveals the location of a car bomb, which didn't explode at Bilbao. The Basque police Ertzaintza removes the bomb.
June 26th there is a noisy protest at the Bijlmerbajes in Amsterdam, where Juanra was transferred (on request). For pictures www.freejuanra.org/nl/03-06-26.html Juanra's new address to sent post to: Juan Ramón Rodríguez Fernández, PI Amsterdam, Locatie Het Schouw Postbus 41901, 1009 CE Amsterdam.
June 27th Miguel Sanz, president of the Autonomous Community of Naffaroa, accuses the Socialist party of Naffaroa, the PSN, of being unclear about their distance from ETA. The IUN (United Left of Naffaroa) was also under attack of Sanz; he claimed that their political thinking was not from this time and also Aralar (left Basque party) was "lacking every form of democratic credibility", because Aralar uses "some ideological criteria of ETA". Sanz brought all this to criminalize the protests from PSN, IUN and Aralar against the plans of the Partido Popular and the Nafforoan Democrats (a split from the PP) in Naffaroa (UPN and CDN) to privatise the healthcare.
June 28th the Basque Social Forum begins. Activists from all over the Basque Country come together in Gasteiz for the opening of the Basque Social Forum. Environmentalists, trade unionists, workers, internationalists, feminists, Basqofiles etc, are going to work together to build a power against "the Spanish capitalist system".
This same day the Euskal Preso Politikoen Kolektiboa (Basque political prisoners collective) presents the results after two years of discussion in their ranks. The political prisoners want to emphasize that is was a though job to discuss, while all of them are spread around the Spanish and French states and also want to emphasize the plurality of their collective. The political prisoners all worked, before they were 'kidnapped' for organisations as ETA, Ekin, Segi, Haika, Batasuna or a prisoner collective. They want to struggle on two fronts: for better conditions in the prisons in which they are and they want to play an active role in the liberation struggle for the Basque Country.

July 1 the Basque regional police, Ertzaintza, disables a car bomb in Bilbao. There was a telephone call made by somebody speaking on behalf of ETA, who warned for the bomb and said the time and location.

July 2 Ińigo Elkoro the spokesman of the Basque committee against torture, declared that the protocol which was implemented by the Basque Region Government for the support of victims of the notorious incommunicado-detention, "enables the Basque police Ertzaintza only to continue torture". June 17th the Ertzaintza arrested 6 people for "street violence" and June 24th they arrested two more. Four days later all of them declared to be tortured and one of them had to got to hospital four times. These were the first statements of torture since the implementation at the 11th of April. According to Elkoro the Ertzaintza uses different measures of torture than occur in the protocol, ones that leaves no traces. So the daily visits (of court appointed doctors) are of no use. One of the doctors, Benito Morentin, declared: "We can't establish physical of psychological torture which leaves no traces. But that doesn't mean that torture didn't occur". the first edition of the new Basque Daily Berria at the 21th of June was for sale, 22.000 copies were daily sold. That is the highest score a daily newspaper entirely in Basque has ever got. The aim is to sell daily 25.000 copies.

July 4th journalists, workers and sympathisers in cities all over the Basque country protest against the 'strangle' measures that are used against the leftwing Basque newspaper GARA to close it down. GARA declared that they won't pay the 5.1 million Euro, for which they are hold responsible by Spanish authorities, as the never proven successor of the for 5 years closed leftwing daily Egin. Judge Garzón should instead close down Real Madrid, who have debts up to 50 million Euro, but still spent 25 million Euro to buy David Beckham. { According to a poll from the generally very reliable polling- bureau Euskobarómetro 65% of the Basque people are, because of the outlawing of the Basque political party Batasuna, not at all satisfied with the functioning of democracy. The outlawing is also seen as a big blow for the Basque Institutes. Three-quarter of the Basques found the closing of the Basque Daily Egunkaria in February this year a big mistake of the Spanish authorities and a severe attack at the freedom of speech. Around 61% of the Basques stood, according to the polls, behind the objectives of ETA (socialism and independence), but didn't want to reach that by the ways ETA wants. }

July 5th various writers, journalists, artists and lawyers present a manifest in which the financial strangle in which the left Basque Daily GARA is being hold by the Spanish justice- department, is condemned. In the manifest further initiatives for the benefit of GARA are announced.

July 6th In Bedia explodes a car bomb explodes in the garage of the Transportcompany 'Azkar'. An anonymous caller warned the fire-brigade, the explosion caused severe damage.
July 19 thousands of people demonstrate in solidarity with the Basque left-wing newspaper GARA in Donostia, forming a human chain. A provocative bomb-alert, probably the work of the Basque police itself, couldn't spoil the good atmosphere.
July 22nd two bombs explode in two hotels in the tourist resorts Alicante and Benidorn. Eleven people are wounded, one of them severely, and the hotels suffer considerable damage. The GARA got a warning call on behalf of ETA, so the premises were evicted for the most. The wounded occurred when one device exploded too soon. The police had one hour to evict the buildings, but the language-institute beside the hotel wasn't even told to evict. Despite the comforting words of the Spanish minister of Interior Acebes and Prime Minister Aznar that this wasn't a new ETA- commando, but a small group, the British and German authorities gave warnings for their citizens travelling to Spain.
The same day Pernando Barena and Joseba Permach of the by Spanish authorities outlawed political part Batasuna, started a campaign to tell tourists in Donostia about their case. In the four- language leaflet it stated: "No Apartheid, You are in the Basque Country".
At the mountain of Jaizkibel a protest-camp starts, together with demonstrations in the villages Lezo, Pasaia and Hondarribia, against the extension of a track for the high speed train TGV through the Basque Country, and against the big harbour project in Pasaia.
The Spanish Supreme Court dismisses at the 24th of July the appeal of the Basque parliament concerning the order of the same Court to remove the Sozialista Abertzaleak (ex-representatives of the banned party Batasuna) from parliamentary benches. According to the Supreme Court the appeal was filed too late and is the Basque parliament not authorised to file such appeals. The Public Prosecutor and the state lawyer argued that the Basque parliament is not the offended party and that is was obliged to follow the order. Eduardo Manzisidor, head of legal services of the parliament, who was ordered to suspend all means of Sozialista Abertzaleak and to close their offices, resigned; he claimed at the Supreme Court that he didn't have the power to do as ordered. The Supreme Court also dismissed his appeal.
At the 25th of July a bomb explodes at the door of the Court in Lizarra (province of Naffaroa), two persons are slightly injured and the front door is blown into pieces. The local traffic help services got a call, warning for the bomb. According to the Spanish representative in Naffaroa "the bomb was identical to material ETA always uses".

August 2nd In Leioa a bomb explodes at the car dealer 'Gońi Motor', causing a lot of damage. Because of a warning call the garage was evicted and there were no casualties.

August 3rd communique from ETA: "Last December we informed a number of European tour operators that "Euskadi Ta Askatasuna" was planning to attack Spanish tourist and economic interests. We also sent similar warnings to certain embassies of Europe and of other countries. We repeated our warning to a number of European journalists. This is what we told them: "Euskadi Ta Askatasuna" (ETA), the revolutionary, socialist organization for the liberation of the Basque nation, would like to inform you, the tour operators, travel agencies, passenger transport agencies, and hotel reservation centers of the following: you are acting highly irresponsibly if you fail to warn your customers of the serious risk they are taking when they choose any tourist resort of the Spanish State. ETA, just as it has done over the last few years, wants to emphasize once again that while the political conflict between the Basque Country and the Spanish State is ongoing, absolutely all the infrastructure of the Spanish State, including logistic, economic, institutional, police or military infrastructure, continues to be the target of our armed operations. You are therefore advised to warn all your customers of this, so that they do not get caught up in a conflict that has nothing to do with them, and to explain to them carefully what kind of personal danger they could be in, if they choose the resorts of the Spanish State for their holidays, because in 2003, too, ETA will be intensively attacking the Spanish tourist industry and cannot guarantee that anyone entering the war zone will not get hurt... "

In a French paper, the situation is described on August 4th as follows: "ETA terror suspects face French inquiry: Paris, Aug 4 (AFP) Three suspected members of the armed Basque separatist movement ETA arrested last week in southwestern France have been placed under investigation for terrorism-related offeces, court sources said Monday. The men, identified as Jose Candido Sagarzaau Gomez, Jose Miguel Illaremendi and Claude Recart, were placed under investigation on Sunday for criminal association, weapons violations, use of false documents and possession of stolen goods - all in association with a terrorist organisation. The three men were nabbed Wednesday in a dawn raid on a house in the southwestern French city of Cahors, where police uncovered weapons, false documents and explosives, including three rigged letter bombs. Spanish Interior Minister Angel Acebes said the men belonged to a "logistical operative nucleus" of ETA members planning attacks in Spain. A string of explolsions in Spain in the past two weeks have been blamed on ETA activists, who authorities in Madrid say are waging a summer campaign of violence to disrupt the country's lucrative tourism industry. more than a dozen people have been hurt in the attacks. ETA's armed campaign for a sepoarate homeland in northern Spain and southwestern France has left an estimated 800 people dead over the past three decades."

At the 6th of August a German court in Nürnberg decides that Paulo Elkoro can be extradited to Spain. Elkoro was arrested at the 21st of January in Nürnberg and is detained in the High Security prison in Münich. He is accused of driving a car that was used to carry out a bomb-attack on barracks of the Guardia Civil in 1997; there were no casualties, but the damage was severe. Elkoro is also accused of sending warning letters to travel agencies. The judge denied the fear of torture of Elkoro. The Basque Information Centre is distributing solidarity-cards for Paulo Elkoro, which you can send to the Interior Minister in Bayern. You can order them for free at  info@baskinfo.org

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The complaints of torture that have been made by Basque citizens in recent years are as follows:
1992- 131 cases
1993 - 83 cases
1194- 112 cases
1995 - 98 cases
1996- 123 cases
1997- 121 cases
1998 - 97 cases
1999 - 48 cases
2000 - 77 cases
2001 - 55 cases in 6 months

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