Transylvania to Transpersonal in Turkey (leadership) Wars to Come
Preface Note (T to T 2):
Hypotheses for Secular: Matter of Facts for Spiritual to Consider:
First my apologies if this is, and it is, psychic sermon or a trite coffee around the kitchen table conversation like those shared among various sectors of clairvoyant and spiritual activists, traditional and not so traditional Native American spiritists, psychics and psychic involved, and 'word of knowledge' holy spirit informed Judeo and Christians. They assume the elect 600 in DC are similar. These are versions of the living acaushic record in psychic memory and fallible, but not the one complete worked-out, all-facet-combined, one-truth of the spirit world's noted acaushic record; there are frauds there too used for political engineering by unethical or naive spirit 'persons'. It is still worth the recording because people usually don't get this kind of facts necessary for liberation in synagogue or church. This is not my delusional belief or anyone else's. This is our delusional religions, period, including Christianity. Privacy, meanness, slander, tort, and bigotry are really the only major considerations. The law allows all in this preface and article by laws covering journalism, first amendment, and Indian Religious Freedom Act.
No one has put this kind of folk political culture into print journalism on independent media center, so since I have no reputation except as a folk writer, I've elected myself for the archiving.
My regards and apologies to practitioners of the 'shaking tent' ceremony, Wellstone Family, any person in spirit or living bodies affected or effected adversely, and Great Populace of Minnesota for any ill will caused by my opinions or exposure of sacred knowledge by this and other articles. These issues and details are presently easily searchable on the Internet. Now is the time to fully consider all the means of human rights violating, political Shakespearean malice, genocide, and conquering. This is what psychics, 'shaking tent' people, activists, and folk writers do. Could you disagree, in general?
Psychokinetic psychicism which is religion, goodness, connection to ancestors, prevention of harm, defense of the lesser or innocent in 'shaking tent' ceremonies is used by mainstream political unethical elite for expedience by murder unprosecute-able. Please see the book, Psychic Battlefield: Military and Occult Complex, for a documentation of mainstream political use of the same and similar abilities.
Psychokinetic phenomenon has always been an aspect of religion and politics among humans; then and now, a small portion of the populations as select. Most people just know about it. As the Annishinabeg Seven Prophets period advances to the Annisihinabeg and Haudenosaunee Seventh Generation prediction, these human abilities are increasingly necessary to be exposed, used for good endeavors, and used in suppression against evil and malice. This has always been an Annishinabeg, other Algonquin people's, Haudenosaunee, and most, if not all, indigenous nation's spiritual ethics.
Think about military or political mercenary use of psychokinetics and remote-influencing that has already happened recently, for centuries and millennium in European and Euro-American political history. Annishinabegs and other Algonquin people save the globe from future passed-over political murders as Minnesota's Senator Paul Wellstone's death may very well have been.
Wellstone is still a hero here when alive and here in spirit assistance for his work, views, dedication to bettering humanity in many ways. It's even rumored that he was heard letting out a 'It's a new day collective' under his breath few times in his life. He knew those that work to better humanity from the otherside and worked with them.
Wellstone was not the first and likely will not be the last person assassinated by such suspected means. Not always is it clear why these tragedies are allowed to occur if there is a benevolent spirit world. We know that the victims of shamanistic assassination come to psychics, traditional religious practitioners, and clairvoyant activists alike. 'It's a new day' is a phrase said to many persons when their spirit passes permanently into spirit only existence by spirits receiving them and the connected living. If it's not said it's intuited to them with that brilliance of their new environment. It's a scary phrase, as I don't recall that there is always a tunnel experience for all of these persons. It's more spiritist community in transition to be being lifted out of body to permanent OBE experience. This might imply being earth-bound as murder victims often are for a time by no fault of their own necessarily, but mainly to do work and resolve. It's also known that all acceptable spirits may come and go at will where the 'new day' is and where the interface is between the living and the permanent OBE.
Most of us have been there in temporary OBE or dream. The phrase is meant to cheer persons in the irrevocable transition from the person the once were into permanent daylight only existence of limited needs. To murder and assassination victim's the phrase 'it's a new day collective', is a tongue-in-cheek phrase it was not yet their time to go and both they and living humanity were cheated in their work and lives being cut short, but only in living body. The real power in the 'collective' inference is that permanent OBE 'living' band together and work solo with the perceptive still living to continue the work of bettering humanity. Paul Wellstone still lives, murder and assassination victims still live, except they are in permanent OBE.
Much of this kind of description can be read about in psychic Sylvia Brown's many volumes of books available at www.sylvia.org or in other psychic books. My information comes from experience solo and among spiritism communities. I grew with conflict between Native American codes of protecting sacred knowledge by silence and universal psychicism's human rights/ spirit rights ethic of describing 'most' of everything to a world of developing souls.
Paul Wellstone was not perfect, like all of us. We all, at one time or another, had, and sometimes still have, a leaning on unethical spiritist practice because there is no populace mainstream check believed presently and we are also attacked unethically without most recourses. Wellstone, like most, may have at prayed or done actions of less than self-defense, defense of another, parity in retaliation, parity in punishment by ethical spiritual or spiritist means against other's initiatory harms that caused retaliatory harm against Wellstone for Wellstone's actions or propitiation of spirits/God/holy ghost done decades ago that caught-up to him out of sequence and out of consequential alignment. This is not uncommon for a famous political or activist leader such as Paul Wellstone or any of the rest of the 600 elect.
These are 'unknown' issues of most murder victims that are somewhat moot in Wellstone's or any one else's death or murder, after the fact. Specifically, there may have been spiritually torturous or lethal fighting by spiritist or psychokinetic psychic means, potentially endemic to all humans, that took or aided the more politically conspiratous assassination of Paul Wellstone by those that can not use a 'systems theory' or 'novice' excuse argument. This is what an elder or spiritist would tell you if you went to one, because it is generally true for everybody. Spiritists can only hint because they know those on the otherside still have emotions that can be hurt and actions that can be used to help or hinder humanity on both sides.
Unfortunately specifically, Wellstone may have been (was) selected for assassination, not only for his solitary anti-war stance against his own party and republicans, but also for the Masonic or Bohemian Grove despotic ritualizing and childish play on his name. Those that are despots among those two groups do not wish 'well stone' to prosper, but rather wish 'ill stone' prosper like 'skull and bones' society fraternity jokes gone out of hand in both scapegoat stoning and ethics of psychokinetic and psychic faculty affects from psychoactive effects.
This is the fallacy and truism of 'love thy enemies' from a shamanistic standpoint, somewhat impossible to actually live lifelong without exception. This is not a character defect, but more a systems organization flaw of spiritism and the structure/function of spirit world involved. This is specifically what Jesus of Nazareth was speaking to for cabalists and prophets fighting, struggling, suffering and looking for best advice. But none of us are Jesus and most find 33 to be too young to credential advice in surviving to 80 plus years of shamanistic warfare. No fault of Jesus of Nazareth, but his likely time spent in Buddhism study between 12 and 30 years old may have caused him to find, and us to miss, what is really important in existence. This is not a point at which to give-up, accept, go in to denial, despond, catharsis, or otherwise not seek social and individualistic human rights justice; just the opposite.
Injustice occurs in all levels of living body life; this is what this article is about from famous to common. What we are to do about it has more to do with direct democracy than the elect, just as in Jesus of Nazareth's time, minimally to even atheists, a historical activist of sorts.
To and for the "'it's a new day' collective'" action committee,
- binasi among many binasiwag (a thunderbird among many thunderbird groups).
Paul Wellstone &Amp
Radio Bite Allegory About A Vampire Family: Transylvania to Transpersonal Vamping.
A Cleveland radio station this morning (April 2002) reports an exact report from last year on same date:
'A Cincinnati man dumps boxes on his wife or ex-wife and her boyfriend believing that they are vampires.'
'The judge in this case says the vampire defense is not an accepted or useable defense and was over-ruled.'
I like it. Boxes are like coffins dropped on the heads of the murders, very Bohemian Grove (Monto Rio, CA). Family is the basic unit of drug-rape and cultic manipulation. Someone would tell George W. Bush that, but he already knows.
Drug-poisoning and drug-toxifing (and related accumulation and flash-backs) a person over a few months to several years can lead a naive soul to react in a drug-side-effect terror moment against their 'vampire' oppressors. There probably was a kernel to a cylo amount of oppressive abuse emotionally, verbally, and physically for a 'defendant' to go through such measures. Actually, if vampires drain life as drugs can drain energy from a victim, it is not a bad sociology or criminology metaphor for the 'defendant's' self-defense argument.
To the shamanistic and indigenous informed persons and cultures such stories are amusing and recall community identified shared histories of struggle: Native American, folk culture, African American, Hispanic-Latino-Mexican American, Asian and Pacific Islander Americans, European indigenous and folk culture, we've all been had at one time or another and had some hypocritical Caucasian Upper Class judge nail us or someone we know from some body-energy foolishness or harming. Speeding is a usual for everyone in sent anxiety or restroom rush. We all know that a majority of these judges and the justice system hide behind the seal while committing crimes not just at home but at work and through work paid by us the electorate.
Drug-culting a person can produce these types of responses by/via rather a process of organized crime activities (and 2 persons make RICO by legal act) perpetrated toward the 'against-their-will' -'drug-influenced' and 'against-their-will'- 'cultic-manipulation-influenced' persons. Drug-poisoning, drug-toxicity, and group/RICO cultic manipulation is likely more probable for this Cincinnati man's box throwing behavior than a mental disorder. Also delayed or preventative self-defense based on past experiences with these cultic manipulators, as marriage cheaters usually become such.
Moreover, these seemingly crazy perpetrators in situations like these are produced by psi-harassing and psi-cultic manipulation of this man using psychoactive ether, chloroform, especially emotion-influencing nitrous oxide and/or illegal LSD. Backing-up this drugging 'against-will' RICO actions of 'industrial Shakespeare' is usually physical actions of cultic manipulation, authority abuse, and complaints to police or mental health boards/servicers for drug or cult side- effect behaviors that the perpetrators committed against the charged victim via drugs and cultic techniques.
Some perpetrator/s, and likely the wife and wife's boyfriend have drugged and cultically manipulated this man many times before. Why two reports unless this is a different man in Cincinnati, a new case by the same man, or a little cultural-warning allegory from someone in the radio media. In other words, I heard this story twice as if new two years in a row and wondering if the radio station rather than court is up to something.
Our laws are stark for measures against drug-manipulation. Testing for drugs is almost never an authorized procedure you can frequently or rarely have done for such a person's self-defense. These laws, procedures, and costs must be changed by political action upon legislatures, government, law enforcement, medical community, social services, and other social institutions.
The following was the best and most humanitarian human rights analogy of similar allegories as this re-reported court case. Consider the book, Psychic Battlefield about military-occult techniques used by USA, former USSR, and closer roots to shamanism in the Congo. Check out the chapter on Future uses of remote-sensing and psychic abilities and most especially remote-influencing. The book's coined term, REMOTE-INFLUENCING, would combine the activities of manipulation/ cultic manipulation and drug side-effects of drugs used in psychic connection and ability facilitation.
The largest source of un-prosecuted child abuse in the USA comes from drug-rape and drug-manipulation by family and the victim's social network; a usual adult victim child history even more embarrassing to adults victimized in such ways, adding non-prevention shame. Similarly in potential victimization and culting, almost all religious orders of most of the world's faith have sleeping conditions without protection from a perpetrator's access, door locks from inside the sleeping quarters.
Commonly, Buddhist monks, priests, nuns, monks, seminary students, Native American spring fasters, to name a few have no locks on their doors to encourage trust and agape among their sanghias, orders, schools, and the spirits attendant to the Great Spirit. Citizens, students, parents: now think about college and university dorm rooms that share by room-mates or have no inside locks due Ohio's and other state's naďve fire code laws.
Both Ohio University in Athens and Kent State University have indoor locks accessible to dorm staff from the outside or no indoor locks; a serious unacceptable unethical policy in any other adult paid housing situation. Shame on the State of Ohio and Ohio Board of Regents, Shame, unless you're enjoying culpability to allow the rampant drug-rapes that carry-over from homes and neighborhoods to universities' in-parentis continuation of the drug-rape sub-culture and next carried over into occupations for graduates whom pass the secret drug-rape societies tests of silence and no activism.
Such is the state of Dadism And Momism among 'Family' as a 'Basic Unit of Democracide'.
An Allegory for Your Thoughts.
Different case links
Silent Genocide Webpage- related to sociology of health
Deep Humanity Webpage- related to sociology of repression against activists
Comment: Grammar, Spelling, Hacking: Committable?
Why I write with poor grammar, poor spelling with hacking included is because my writing is frequently hacked and published as such is at least some kind of public documentation. Many others are hacked as well, including college professor and others of intellect or activism that cannot report hacking due economic threats from employers. First Amendment- US Constitutional expression allows these irritants. All the above are symbolically exposed as analogies to $ 2 dollar ether canister psi-terrorism.
Get it out and published on-line. 'Professional concerns' not being measured up to by professions and the 'public that could publish, but don't publish', keeps needed social reports out of the public correspondence to pressure against professional enabling, culpability, and their own corruption participation in drug-rape sub-culture including child-sex trading which is directly related to hacking my kind of activism/journalism.
There is a drug-rape sub-culture and it has its own jargon, lingo, and slang that describes its cultural effects and affects. Described next is sent guided imagery and related black-outs used for nurf-like psi-image warfare and cult-accident-murder making respectively. In this original article I was advised to predict Wellstone's downed plane that caused his death by similar distraction or blackout means possibly remote-influencing his pilot.
Cleveland is likened to the psi-term 'cleave' related to psi-image received sword 'cleaves' as the image sword phantomlike-cuts through your body sometimes associated with psi-sent blackouts against targeted victims. Associated cleave blackouts are by entirely pharmacological means in the relationship between pharmacokinetic drugs causing psychokinetic inter-connections between persons. This is actually the same technique used to exorcise/convert/ heal/ induct persons into religious or spiritual faiths seen often on evangelical television stations, but with a nicer and more positive goal for the blackout subjects. The drama of blackouts is supposed to impress the blackout subject and on-lookers to the power of the ceremony, spiritual group collective-network, spirit(s), and/or God or other substitutes. Whether the subject of cleave-blackouts or other blackouts are 'bad' or 'good' is entirely up to the group-speak and/or opinion perceptions of the blackout subject.
Such remote influence has potential physical situational harm, depression, hopelessness, terrorism causing influences on the subjects by loss of control embarrassment, confusion, and situation caused accidents, injuries, and deaths. Its very basic shamanism practiced admittedly by a portion of 20% of the world population and un-admittedly by a portion of the remaining 80% of the world population for personal, sociological (classism), and religious control. And it should be outed. Marx is in economics, liberation, political theories, so to Marx should be applied to anthropology of today's world of religion, cult, and crime. For spirituality, there is still the unmitigated strength of the group and network in protection and control that can be both a liberation-solidarity or populace to oligarchy fascist-destruction. Presently all classes are united in solidarity of all-class drug-rape as sub-cultures in each class are boss-slave taskmasters inter-related likely an un-report religio-political factor involved in social injustice that is all-class clique agreed upon since the feudal era and before. Enter Bohemian Club Grove available on IMC or at http://mywebpage.netscape.com/bclupfer/instant/garden.html.
How such blackouts are done by psi-networked drugging for remote-influence is described in the article Deep Humanity available as a web page at http://mywebpage.netscape.com/bclupfer/instant/aboutme.html or a search on most www.indymedia.org city sites. Basically, a person in the attacking group or one of its physically accessible victims are hand gagged from not awake consciousness to unconsciousness. Usually drug-rapes are committed by inhalant anesthesia drugging against an already slumbering victim. Special needs of a awake victim are needed to produce a violent quick black-out. Next, believe it or not, the experience is out of body experience placed from the first physical-influenced victim to the second remote-influenced victim. In ether connected OBE the first victim and attackers can influence a aware conscious second victim likely only if the remote-influence victim has some kind of psychoactive substance still accumulated in his/her body, not necessarily ether. Long lasting surgical or dentistry anesthesia combinations or environmental pollutants maybe all that is necessary.
In addition, DMT is a psychoactive neurotransmitter that every human being and life form self-produces cellularly their entire lives. It has been called the 'spirit molecule' by a book RS Strassman, MD. DMT is the active constituent in ayahuasca and marimosa plants used in ancient to present day South American pantheistic spiritualism, spiritism, medium-ship, dream divination, healing, and shamanism. DMT is something the DEA cannot regulate entirely as even parameciums in our drinking water self-produce DMT. DEA can however arrest you for possession of synthetic DMT, certain high-level containing herbs like those mentioned, and more importantly an 'abnormal' mystical molecule DMT blood level. Too bad for lamas, popes, and other highly spirit connected persons as DMT may be important as the neurotransmitter that spirit or the holy spirit speaks through just as other neuro-transmitters facilitate heard noise in to deciphered language recognition in the brain from other living humans. This could account for the connection of OBE sent blackouts to aware conscious victims, but only a hypothesis. All psi-connecting psychoactive substances, self body-produced, ingested, or synthetic seem to have a universal cross-connection, independent of the received outcome or intentions of senders, attackers, or receivers as reported on Vaults of Erowid at www.erowid.org and Richard Ruggley's Encyclopedia of Pyschoactives, Oxford Press, as well as works of RS Strassman, UM-TC's McKinnea, Annishinabeg Midewan innii & Midewan ikwe healers, psychics I've known, and others.
Here are some helpful link references:
Erowid DMT vault
Spirit molecule chapter summary
rick straussman, spirit molecule author
links entheogen-related by rs
Winkleman on neuroentheogen
Shamanism is the original neurotheolgy from Winkleman
Miriam Stoppard's DMT page
DMT-extraction from various plants
U AZ Philosophy of Consciousness on-line studies
people w online philosophy of consciousness papers
web resources related to consciousness
Center for Consciousness Studies U AZ-Tucson
As you can see our defendant accuse and convicted of assault by box dropping, may have experienced these kinds of remote-influencing from a murderous an/or menacing wife-cheater and her conspiring boyfriend to rid themselves of her husband by mental committal, imprisonment, murder, or other discrediting means, independent of the husband's character or considering the possible drug-influencing he may have been doing also.
What we can do for social justice and spiritual ethics of 'spiritism', even if that is the 'holy spirit' impersonated in either Judeo-Christian or Islam. Psychoactive shamanism in the motif of mainstream religion is a common two party political ploy to control politics and the populace similar to the Boston Tea Party in impersonation.
Interestingly as bioregional and psychic history, a psychic I know related to me years ago that the colonial founder last name of Cleveland was aware of the ether psi-imagery making of 'sword cleaving' as a cover for black-outs sent from both founder Cleveland's remote view, remember he knew the famous psychic named Swendenborg from Urbana, Ohio and from founder Cleveland's Masonic associations. Sword cleaving imagery and its blackout version were often used to sub-due and convert indigenous people in Ohio and have roots back to Christopher Columbus and conquistadors.
Now tell Howard Zinn that he doesn't go far enough in inclusive re-visionist history. My family and neighbors sabotaged my car numerous times every time Howard Zinn comes to speak to a university I'm nearby over the last 25 years.
IMC is a CITIZEN PARTICIPATORY ALTERNATIVE NEWS SOURCE. BE THE MEDIA. FRANCIS BACON'S AND DESCARTE'S HUMAN-DOGS NEED YOUR REPORTS AND HELP FROM REMOTE-INFLUENCE and what is past and presently known in indigenous communities as a 'tag' or 'psychic tag' that does cause harm in the USA and at least 20% of the indigenous spirituality-based practicing world. Let's see: 20% of 6 billion is over 1 billion global citizens unprotected by needed additions in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
We need a 31st article against pharmacological crime and related psychic crime and a 32nd article against corruption, including cultic manipulation, perpetuated by government and social institutions and persons.
Yours from your indigenous and university educated, green party, shamanism-rooted and shamanism-cleaning-up, socio-political IMC media writer,
PASA= Pharmacokinetic Astro-Projection Science Administration, a good idea for a federal independent agency creation.
Verde=still all North & South Americas are remote-influenced by psychoactive drugs and pollutants in our common Green ('verde' means green in Spanish). In teasing my/our Green Party, I like to relate to green pepper sauce as a green party's Ten Key Values remedy for social injustice: as The Good Earth and the Wisdom Not to Use the Earth's resources for Democracide like both Republican and Democratic party's Dadism/Momism drug-rape sub-culture within those parties.
May the rising Green Party not make the same mistake and all parties remedy the hidden domestic terrorism of remote-influencing.
Publishing this article last April may have something to do with my 16 days of detention initiated by KSU Detective Chris Jenkins. Detective Jenkins periodically detains anti-war activists and other intellectuals he, the political corrupt, and/or the KSU administration deem a threat to their protection of social injustice and drug-rape maintenance. Many activists have been detained by Jenkins have gone the way of Jenkins repression-styled life-ruining and life-discrediting slaughter, since Jenkins was detained and jail himself more than ten years ago and Jenkins's charges were child-sex charges. Jenkins and those connected to him in practice of abuse of authority should be investigated, charged, fired, de-POST certified, and jailed for abuse of power, corruption, sex-crimes, and the like.
There is the possibility that whoever is Governor, & et.al., at anytime, likes the no-indoor lock fire code policy on Ohio campuses in pay-off by sex-trade barter required by campus- protected campus drug-rapists to Governor-johns and et.al.-johns and others they terrorize or cajole into pressured sex acts.
Frozen strawberries anyone? (You'll get that joke if you're Shawnee.)
Ayahuasca Shamanism Bibliography and citation:
There exists a religion X such that DMT, ayahuasca and shamanism combined by their existence. By such a religions existence documented I'm anthropological and similar in culture and religion in writing and being and not crazy nor a liar.
About Ayahuasca, DMT containing plant, and related Shamanism.
Diet and other precautions when using ayahuasca
Come To Disembodied Eyes GluckSpilz
Vegetalistas, like their counterparts the Indian shamans of many indigenous groups of the Upper Amazon, claim to derive healing skills and powers from certain plant teachers - often psychoactive -
believed to have a mother (). Knowledge -- particular medicinal knowledge -- comes from the plants themselves, the senior shaman only mediating the transmission of information, protecting the novice from the attack of sorcerers or evil spirits, and indicating to him or her the proper conditions under which transmission is possible. Among the plant teachers large trees are considered particularly powerful. The necessity of -- which also includes sexual segregation -- to learn from the plants was stressed by every vegetalista I met. The body has to be purified to communicate with the spirit realm. Only in this way will the neophytes acquire their spiritual helpers, learn icaros (power songs), and acquire their yachay, yausa, or mariri -- phlegm the novice receives at some point diuring his initiation, either from the senior shaman or from the spirits. Particularly important are the . The icaros constitute the quintessence of shamanic power. The icaros and the phlegm -- both of which have material and immaterial qualities -- represent the transference of the spirits of each plant, with all their knowledge and theriomorphic and
anthropomorphic manifestations, into the body of the shaman.
Diet: "During the month .. we ate only fish, plantains, and rice
without salt or any spices, and only twice a day [..] We took
ayahuasca once a week" (cf. :14). "We were supposed to be far from people who were not keeping the diet. There were people coming there, the relatives of the patients, women of fertile age. It was not possible to learn anything in this way" (cf. :16). "He gave me a mixture of Psychotria viridis and tobacco to drink every four days. He told me that it was like this he had learned medicine: If the diet and isolation were maintained long enough, the plants themselves would reveal their properties in a sort of telepathic way" (cf. :17). You can only become a good vegetalista by keeping a diet or fasting for years, then you become one that knows the science of the muraya, of the sumi, and of the banco, which are the three highest degrees in the traditional vegetalista medicine in the Amazon (cf. :48).
4 - The importance of psychotropic plants in the shamanistic practices of many indigenous groups of the Upper Amazon is paramount. For the Yagua, for example, contact with the spirits of the plants by ingesting them is considered "the only path to knowledge" (:33).
Psychotropic plants correspond to the category of
plants known among the Shipibo as muraya-cai = shaman-makers (:203). These plants reveal the "real" world, while the normal world is often considered illusory (cf. :102 for the Yagua; :78 for the Siona: : 134 for the Jivaro). Also see Harner 1973: 5 - The same plant may manifest itself to the vegetalista by means of several spiritual figures, all having common features among them, in such a way that there is no extreme contradiction between one vision and
81 - The term dietar (to keep a diet) includes not only dietary restrictions (not eating salt or condiments, sweets, pork fat ,etc.), but also sexual segregation and other prerequisites, as for example avoiding the sun or making food, etc. (cf. :346). One of the reason shamanism is declining among Indians and mestizos alike is because young people don't bother to keep the difficult diet (cf.:192; :418; :175).
1983 Voir, Savoir, Pouivoir. Le chamanisme chez les Yagua du Nord-Est peruvien. Paris, Editions de l'Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales.
Chevalier, Jacques M.
1982 Civilization and the Stolen Gift: Capital, Kin, and Cult in Eastern Peru, University of Torontoi Press.
1984 The Cosmos Encoiled Indian Art of the Peruvian Amazon, New York, Center for Inter-American Relations 1986 Una Terapia Estetica. Los Disenos Visionarios del Ayahuasca entre los Shipibo-Conibo. America Indigena 46(1)189-218. Mexico.
1987 Die Spitze des Bewusstseins. Untersuchungen zu Weltbild und Kunst der Shipibo-Conibo. Hohenscaftlarn, Klaus Renner Verlag.
Harner, Michael J.
1972 The Jivaro People of the Sacred Waterfalls, Berkeley,University of California Huxley, Francis
1963 Affable Savages: An Anthropologist Among the Urubu Indians of Brazil, London, Rupert Hart-Davis.
Langdon E. Jean
1979b The Siona Halliuicinogenis Ritual, Its meaning and Power. In John H. Morgan (ed.), Understanding Religion and Culture: Anthropological and Theological Perspectives. Washington University Press of America.
Luna, Luis Eduardo
1984 The Concept of Plants as Teachers Among Four Mestizo Shamans of Iquitos, Northeast Peru, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 11135-56.
1991 Ayahuasca Visions: The Religious Iconography of a Peruvian Shaman, North Atlantic Books
1987 Shamanism, Colonialism, and the Wild Man: A Study in Terror and Healing. The University of Chicago Press.
Proof and description of Psycho-kinetic 'shaking' tent or djasakid, cute aye- 'just a kid' or 'dj (music dis jocky) asama (tobacco) kid', ceremonies still exist as amazing as PK psychic Urie Gellers spoon bending with his mind.
From www.google.com word search shaking tent, but only page 1 of over 40 pages.
If a tent why not a person, airplane, pilot contributing to Minnesota Wellstone's Death by SOA war-mongered inspired similar means.
This one first site, a good buffalo site, below is for my mother ADBL whom I gave a Buffalo shawl to instead eagle shawl. She died in psi-political wars with a symbol of sacrifice instead of foreseeing for social justice writing and activism as a psychic and traditional Annishinabeg spiritualist community involved member, a bad case of Brucialosis from her son Bruce, me, who should have known the better shawl to give her. Buffalo affinity people helped her none the less, while DC and Ohio eagle talons became an owl's talons named Moloch.
Welcome to Buffalo Spirit On-line - The Spirit is rising!
... Many people ask me, to get them to be medicine man that they can perform
a shaking tent or something like that. I says 'no, I can't do that. ...
www.ammsa.com/buffalospirit/February-2000/ joecardinal.html - 17k - Dec. 7, 2002 - Cached - Similar pages
This second site will make you cry. It's a good honest culture that frees the future of trouble, hurt, pain, crime and extends compassion, forgiveness, social justice, longevity, healing, and well-being.
... Then there was the shaking tent ceremony, which would help locate
lost people and objects and predict where games could be found. ...
schools.spsd.sk.ca/buena/grassroots/4har/niklas.htm - 8k - Cached - Similar pages
Kushapatshikan: the Shaking Tent
Kushapatshikan: the Shaking Tent. The shaking ... One elder from Utshimassiu
said he once heard Mishtapeu in the shaking tent. Mishtapeu said ...
www.innu.ca/shaking.html - 7k - Cached - Similar pages
Mary Madeline Nuna Talks About Shaking Tents and ...
... Mary Madeline Nuna (MMN) - When I moved here [to the area of Sheshatshit], I
saw them [shaking tent]. I saw it being done all the time [shaking tent]. ...
www.innu.ca/mmnuna.html - 9k - Cached - Similar pages
[ More results from www.innu.ca ]
the shaking tent
The shaking tent, or "conjuring lodge," as early chroniclers also called it, was
the setting for a divinatory rite performed by specially trained shamans ...
www.desk.nl/~northam/oro/animist/hta.htm - 3k - Cached - Similar pages
Shaking Tent Ceremonies
Shaking Tent Ceremonies. ~Ancient ceremony, Niagara Falls, August 17
At this place, the people used to make an offering to the spirit ...
www.greatlakesdirectory.org/migration/ceremonies.htm - 16k - Cached - Similar pages
The Prophecies. The Prophecies. The Migration Journey has been guided
from the beginning by ceremony. We were told that prophecies ...
www.greatlakesdirectory.org/migration/prophecy.htm - 31k - Cached - Similar pages
[ More results from www.greatlakesdirectory.org ]
Links to Myths and Legends
... Kushapatshikan: the Shaking Tent -- recollections of these ceremonies
by elders, and by some youths who took part. It is interesting ...
www.theoldwestwebride.com/txt7/myth/mythlks.html - 23k - Cached - Similar pages
Art First Nations: Morriseau & Missipeshu
... Inside the Missipeshu is Mackinac, the turtle and the shaking tent,
with the Jissakid indicated at the top of the tent. On the right ...
www.kstrom.net/isk/art/morriss/art_miss.html - 23k - Cached - Similar pages
Native Spiritual Links
... Art First Nations: Morriseau & Missipeshu A longish essay on how Norval Morrisaeau's
work relats to the spiritual practice of the shaking tent. ...
www.abo-peoples.org/NativeLinks/SpiritualLinks.html - 10k - Cached - Similar pages
RELIGION, Ancient religions (The World-Wide Web Virtual Library: ...
... Theoretically, she was the daughter of Zeus, and the sister of Apollo. This was
the cult of Diana-Artemis of Anatolian fertility cult fame. "the Shaking Tent ...
www.snowcrest.net/dougbnt/ancient.html - 9k - Cached - Similar pages
Blackfoot Shaking Tent
all content and images are copyright 2000-2002 Canadian Native
Store designed and maintained by EPI Creative Ltd.
www.canadiannativestore.com/pages/ books/book_closeups/CNS2403.html - 2k - Cached - Similar pages
... Then Red Tail told the rest of the camp. "Through the help of the spirits
in my shaking tent, I will make the body of the Windigo disappear.". ...
aboriginalcollections.ic.gc.ca/ clan/legends/red_tail.htm - 5k - Cached - Similar pages
Sandy Lake Diabetes - Community
... SHAKING TENT This ceremony was performed by a shaman or spiritual person, whom
erected a tent with dimensions approximately 3'Lx 3'Wx 6'H. The shaman would ...
www.sandylakediabetes.com/community.html - 27k - Dec. 7, 2002 - Cached - Similar pages
Winds of Change-Summer 2002 - Traditional Knowledge
... These seven stars also represent the seven poles used in the construction
of the "Jiisakaan—Shaking Tent Ceremony. " "Bugonagiizhig ...
www.winds.uthscsa.edu/2002/summer/knowledge.html - 34k - Cached - Similar pages
The University of Manitoba Press
... of Algonquian religion and ceremonies than any other source before the 20th century,
describing individual spirit beings, the 'shaking tent' ceremony, the ...
www.umanitoba.ca/publications/uofmpress/ books/orders_dreamed.html - 11k - Cached - Similar pages
Medicine and Healing - Indian Country Wisconsin
... Dream fetishes could also originate through the work of the medicine
man during the shaking tent ritual. These ... top. Shaking Tent. The ...
www.mpm.edu/wirp/ICW-34.html - 27k - Cached - Similar pages
Canada's First Nations: Native Civilisations
... The djasakid was a special kind of shaman who conducted the "shaking tent" ceremony.
These vision fasts involved people sitting around a 'shaking lodge'. ...
www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/ firstnations/algonquian.html - 10k - Cached - Similar pages
CBC4Kids - Ancient Scrolls Found on the Internet - Daily News ...
... There were other rituals, like the drum and the shaking tent, used to conjure the
souls of the living and the dead. Links: See this story in RealVideo here. ...
www.cbc4kids.cbc.ca/general/whats-new/daily-top-stories/ 2000/week-19/tuesday/default.html - 8k - Cached - Similar pages
John Robert Colombo, Published Works
... Songs of the Great Land (1989, 1996); The Mystery of the Shaking
Tent (1993); Voices of Rama (1994). Translations: Bulgarian. Under ...
www.library.utoronto.ca/canpoetry/colombo/pub.htm - 11k - Dec. 8, 2002 - Cached - Similar pages
Berens and Pigeon Rivers
... in Saulteaux Society and The Ojibwa of Berens River, Manitoba make very interesting
reading, especially the parts about conjuring and the shaking tent ceremony ...
22.214.171.124/MRCA/Berens/Berens.html - 6k - Dec. 8, 2002 -
Eagle Village First Nation
... Its describes the characteristics of individual spirit being, the use of the "shaking
tent" to facilitate communication between humans and spirit, the spirit ...
www.eaglevillagefirstnation.ca/Resource%20Page.htm - 33k - Dec. 8, 2002 - Cached - Similar pages
... The previous night the shaking tent ceremony was conducted for their community,
through which they were instructed to perform ceremonies at the ocean to ...
www.fcpotawatomi.com/sept_1_01/comment.html - 17k - Cached - Similar pages
... liquor store. You burned our shaking tent Put a phone upon our wall
And charge outrageous prices For a long-distance call. We knew ...
www.shingwauk.auc.ca/ShingwaukHall/SH_p20.html - 9k - Cached - Similar pages
Really uninformative Midewan links and proof that Midewan and Shawnees still exist links:
Ingrid midewan site
minnominee midewan w/ Haudenosaunee Gawiio
sandy lake midewan/ GLIFWC
sundance midewan comparision GLIFC
Micheal Patterson midewan
St. Thomas Univ. Links midewan
Mole Lake thingy midewan
trent univ. ont. Natives studies
the circle news
link to www.uwec.edu
u of sask. justice as healing
MI odawa midewan
Bay Mills C Col. Smudging
sacred fire: coal bundle
Jim 'Great Elk' Waters, Shawnee Chief's mide-shawandasse site.
Environmental Ethics at:
Center for Environmental Philosophy
Environmental Association Links From Center For Environmental Philosophy
Environmental Publication Links From Center For Environmental Philosophy
Environmental Bibliography Link From Center For Environmental Philosophy
From International Environmental Ethics Society
Bibliographic word searches in environmental ethics for pertinent words: sociobiology, pan-psychicism, transpersonal, philosophy of mind, pantheism, animism, magic,
There exists X applied philosophy that still finds relevance in write using the words and concepts cited above is an academic, helping humanity and helping the environment endeavor, so I' either not obsessed or I have tremendously numerous company of highly educated and renowned philosophers.
search for 'sociobio'
Barash, David P. Sociobiology and Behavior. Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 1(1979):181-85.
Callicott, J. Baird, "Do Deconstructive Ecology and Sociobiology Undermine Leopold's Land Ethic?," Environmental Ethics 18(1996):353-372. Recent deconstructive developments in ecology (doubts about the existence of unified communities and ecosystems, the diversity-stability hypothesis, and a natural homeostasis or `balance of nature'; and an emphasis on `chaos,' `perturbation,' and directionless change in living nature) and the advent of sociobiology (selfish genes) may seem to undermine the scientific foundations of environmental ethics, especially the Leopold land ethic. A reassessment of the Leopold land ethic in light of these developments (and vice versa) indicates that the land ethic is still a viable environmental ethic, if judiciously updated and revised. Callocott is in philosophy, University of North Texas, Denton. (EE)
Callicott, J. Baird, Beyond the Land Ethic. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1999. A sequel to In Defense of the Land Ethic (SUNY Press, 1989). This compilation collects many of the author's scattered journal articles and book chapters published in the intervening decade. An introduction locates environmental ethics in the wider discipline of philosophy and sets each item in the collection in its context. Contents: 1. Introduction: Compass Points in Environmental Philosophy I. Practicing Environmental Ethics 2. Environmental Philosophy Is Environmental Activism: The Most Radical and Effective Kind 3. How Environmental Ethical Theory May Be Put Into Practice 4. Holistic Environmental Ethics and the Problem of Ecofascism II. The Conceptual Foundations of the Land Ethic Revisited 5. Just the Facts, Ma'am 6. Can a Theory of Moral Sentiments Support a Genuinely Normative Environmental Ethic? 7. Do Deconstructive Ecology and Sociobiology Undermine the Leopold's Land Ethic? III. Moral Monism vs. Moral Pluralism 8. The Case Against Moral Pluralism 9. Moral Monism in Environmental Ethics Defended IV. Nature's Intrinsic Value 10. Genesis and John Muir 11. Rolston on Intrinsic Value 12. Intrinsic Value in Nature: A Metaethical Analysis V. Ecological Metaphysics in Agriculture, Medicine, and Technology 13. The Metaphysical Transition in Farming: From the Newtonian-Mechanical to the Eltonian-Ecological 14. Environmental Wellness 15. After the Industrial Paradigm, What? VI. Toward a New Philosophy of Conservation 16. Whither Conservation Ethics? 17. Aldo Leopold's Concept of Ecosystem Health 18. The Value of Ecosystem Health 19. Ecological Sustainability as a Conservation Concept Callicott is in philosophy at the University of North Texas, and is president of ISEE. (v.9,#4)
Heinsohn, Robert and Craig Packer. "Complex Cooperative Strategies in Group-Territorial African Lions." Science 269 (1995):1260-1262. African lions are more diverse in co-operation and non-cooperation than current sociobiological theory can explain. When challenged by simulated intruders, some lionesses lead the charge while others lag behind. Although leaders recognize that their companions are lagging, they fail to punish them. Some brave lionesses take risks that are not offspring-optimizing, because they tolerate cowardly lionesses. Some cowardly lionesses come through in a pinch, when they are most needed; some do not. The variety of behavior styles is quite broad, puzzling to current theories of cooperation. With an accompanying report by Virginia Morrell, pp. 1216-17. Heinsohn is in zoology, Australian National University; Packer in animal behavior at the University of Minnesota. (v6,#3)
Johnson, Andrew, "Sociobiology and Concern for the Future." Journal of Applied Philosophy 6 (1989): 141-148. Sociobiology makes a contribution to ethics because it reveals a purpose in human life---the natural aim to produce descendants. This biological purpose is an improvement on ideas of "everlasting progress" that lead to technological degradation of the earth---but it is still an anthropocentric model that does little for environmental ethics. (Katz, Bibl # 2)
Minai, Asghar Talaye, Aesthetics, Mind, and Nature: A Communication Approach to the Unity of Matter and Consciousness. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1993. "The totality of cosmic order bears messages of meaning and is `beautiful'. The properties of this system may fall in either rational or random order, the former promoting well-ordered, rule-generated, sociobiological conditions, but the latter providing the necessary complexity and variety that transforms the mundane into the beautiful. ... This book aims to satisfy the urge for better understanding of the underlying principle of beauty and the nature of what is beautiful (p. xvi). (v7,#2)
Nitecki, Matthew H. and Doris V. Nitecki, eds., Evolutionary Ethics. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993. 368 pages. $ 16.95 paper. $ 49.50 hardcover. Four sections: Historical. Sociobiological. Rejection of the Sociobiological. Further perspectives. (v4,#3)
Ruse, Michael. Review of Sociobiology and Behavior. By David P. Barash. Environmental Ethics 1(1979):181-85.
Ruse, Michael. Sociobiology: Sense or Nonsense? Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 2(1980):173-77.
Ruse, Michael. Review of The Expanding Circle: Ethics and Sociobiology. By Peter Singer. Environmental Ethics 6(1984):91-94.
Singer, Peter. The Expanding Circle: Ethics and Sociobiology. Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 6(1984):91-94.
Thompson, Paul B. Review of Sociobiology: Sense or Nonsense? By Michael Ruse. Environmental Ethics 2(1980):173-77.
Zimmerman, Michael, Callicott, J. Baird, Sessions, George, Warren, Karen J., and Clark, John, eds., Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1998. 463 pages. The second edition of what has been a very popular anthology in environmental ethics. Baird Callicott adds an article, "Do Deconstructive Ecology and Sociobiology Undermine Leopold's Land Ethic?" Harold Glasser adds "Demystifying the Critiques of Deep Ecology." Karen Warren revises the introduction to ecofeminism. A section on political ecology includes new essays on free market environmentalism, sustainable development, liberal environmentalism, socialist environmentalism, and ecotage. (v9,#2)
search for 'pan-psychism'
Andrews, John, "Weak Panpsychism and Environmental Ethics," Environmental Values 7(1998): 381-396. Weak panpsychism, the view that mindlike qualities are widespread in nature, has recently been argued for by the prominent ecofeminist Val Plumwood and has been used by her to ground an ethic of respect for nature. This ethic advocates a principle of respect for difference, the rejection of moral hierarchy and the inclusion of plants, mountains, rivers and ecosystems within the moral community. I argue that weak panpsychism cannot, convincingly, justify the rejection of moral hierarchy, as it is compatible with it. Also the intentional criterion of mind, employed by weak panpsychism, which includes teleology, has the counter-intuitive implication of giving machines moral status. I cast doubt on the claims that (i) intentionality is a necessary condition for moral status and that (ii) it is sufficient for the ascription of agency. It is suggested that any account of intentionality that allows it to be predicated of mountains, rivers etc. would be widely, and correctly regarded as a reductio of that account. Finally an aesthetic reinterpretation of weak panpsychism is offered. KEYWORDS: weak panpsychism, assimilationism, dualism, intentionality, agency. John Andrews is at the University of Reading, UK. (EV)
Plumwood, Val, "Intentional Recognition and Reductive Rationality," Environmental Values 7(1998): 397-421. Recognition of intentionality and the possibility of agency in nonhuman others is a prerequisite for a process of mutual adjustment and dialogue that could replace current reductive and dualistic human-centered theories. John Andrews' article in this issue of Environmental Values is criticised for misattributing to me the view that intentionality could be a sole criterion for moral worth - a view which I reject as unacceptably hierarchical and human-centered. To clarify my position, the values and limitations of different kinds of ranking are discussed; and the concept of intentionality is explored, with particular reference to apparently purposeful machines and to Dennett's theory of consciousness. KEYWORDS: consciousness, dualism, moral extensionism, intentionality, panpsychism, ranking, reductionism. Val Plumwood resides at Braidwood, NSW, Australia. (EV)
Sprigge, T. L. S., "Some Recent Positions in Environmental Ethics Examined," Inquiry 34(1991):107-28. An examination of three recent books advocating beliefs about, and attitudes toward, wild or semi-wild nature, characteristic of those in eco-philosophy today. Paul Taylor, Respect for Nature; Holmes Rolston, Environmental Ethics; Andrew Brennan, Thinking about Nature. Taylor and Rolston are seen as forms of deep ecology; Brennan's position is humanistic ecology, a middle way between shallow and deep ecology. These authors are interpreted through Sprigge's panpsychism, in which he is sympathetic to the idea that there is value in nature apart from the life of humans and animals. Though Rolston and Taylor disclaim being panpsychists, it is hard to make sense of their claims without moving toward panpsychism, or at least broadening our conception of the distribution of sentience. Even for the panpsychist, however, where it is not the welfare of individual organisms that is in question, but the alleged value of units such as total ecosystems, species, or terrains, appeal must be mainly to aesthetic value. For even if there is a world of inner feeling in nature, we must remain so ignorant of its character, except when it rises to the animal or human level, that we cannot do very much about it. The best answer to the question of the human role in nature lies in a special sense of oneness with the wider system of things which humans can obtain when away from human restrictions, even though nature is just as much there in much of the apparently humanized world. Sprigge is emeritus in philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. (v.8,#4)
Sprigge, T.L.S., "Are There Intrinsic Values in Nature?" Journal of Applied Philosophy 4, no. 1 (1987): 21-28. Sprigge argues that all value must be appreciated by a conscious evaluator, and thus, that if there are intrinsic values in nature we must subscribe to a panpsychist metaphysics, such as we discover in Royce, Fechner, or Whitehead. But his argument rests on the trivial point that if we imagine a nature without any conscious human valuers, we are conscious of it in our imagining. "I cannot make sense of [the world's] existing in some unexperienced manner" (p. 25). (Katz, Bibl # 1)
International Environmental Ethics Society
search for 'transpersonal'
I believe transpersonal ecology is partially DMT-connected community of human and non-human beings.
Baxter, Brian H., "Ecocentrism and Persons," Environmental Values 5(1996):205-219. Ecocentrism has to establish an intrinsic connection between its basic value postulate of the non-instrumental value of the nonhuman world and a conception of human flourishing, on pain of failure to motivate acceptance of its social and political prescriptions. This paper explores some ideas recently canvassed by ecocentrists such as Robyn Eckersley, designed to establish this connection--transpersonal ecology, autopoietic value theory and ecofeminism--and finds them open to objection. An alternative approach is developed which concentrates on the connection between non-human nature and personhood, via the phenomenon of culture. Persons are conceived of as essentially culture-creators, and the fact of their embodiment in ecosystems is argued to be essential to their activities as culture creators. The variety and integrity of such systems thus turns out to be essential for the flourishing of what is essential to personhood. This means that ecocentrism has to be abandoned in its pure form, and replaced with person-centrism, but this conclusion is argued for on the basis of the extension of the concept of the self--a strategy often endorsed by ecocentrists themselves. KEYWORDS: Ecocentrism, environmental ethics, intrinsic value theory, persons (EV)
Benson, John, Environmental Ethics: An Introduction with Readings. New York: Routledge, 2001. $ 20. 304 pages. A blending of a systematic introduction and readings through which the student is led. Some chapters: Environmental goods and human well being. Environmental goods and the problem of co-operation. Environmental virtues. What entities have independent moral status? Relating to nature: Following Nature. Relating to nature: Being a part of nature. Techniques that have been used to value the environment and a critical evaluation of environmentalism, from "light" to "deep green." Readings: Richard and Val Routley, "Environmental Ethics in Practice"; Bryan G. Norton, "The Cultural Approach to Conservation Biology"; E. O. Wilson, "The Environmental Ethic"; Jane Howarth, "Neither Use nor Ornament: A Consumers' Guide to Care"; David Pearce et al, "Economic Valuation of Environmental Goods"; Garrett Hardin, "A Tragedy of the Commons"; J. L. Mackie, "Game Theory Analysis"; R. W. Hepburn, "Wonder"; John O'Neill, "Science, Wonder and Lust of the Eyes"; Paul W. Taylor, "Respect for Nature"; J. S. Mill, "Nature"; Holmes Rolston, III, "Can and Ought We to Follow Nature?"; Arne Naess, "Identification, Oneness, Wholeness and Self-Realization"; Warwick Fox, "Transpersonal Ecology and the Varieties of Identification"; Val Plumwood, "Nature, Self and Gender: Feminism, Environmental Philosophy and the Critique of Rationalism"; Phil Larkin et al, "Environmental Verses." Benson is emeritus, Lancaster University, UK, also at the Open University, UK. (EE v.12,#1)
Fox, Warwick, "The Varieties of Transpersonal Identification." In The Deep Ecology Movement: An Introductory Anthology, pp. 136 54. Edited by Alan Drengson and Yuichi Inoue. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1995. (Also in Japanese translation.)
Fox, Warwick, "The Distinctiveness of the Transpersonal Ecology Approach to Ecophilosophy." Holistic Science and Human Values 1 (1992): 21-29. Fox, Warwick, "Fondamenti Antropocentrici e Non Antropocentrici Nelle Decisioni Sull'Ambiente." In L'Etica Nelle Politiche Ambientali, pp. 115-37. Edited by Corrado Poli and Peter Timmerman. Padova, Italy: Fondazione Lanza and Gregoriana Libreria Editrice, 1991.
Fox, Warwick, "Transpersonal Ecology and the Varieties of Identification." The Trumpeter: Journal of Ecosophy 8 (1991): 3-5.
Fox, Warwick, "Transpersonal Ecology: 'Psychologizing' Ecophilosophy." The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology 22 (1990): 59-96.
Fox, Warwick, Toward a Transpersonal Ecology: Developing New Foundations for Environmentalism. Boston: Shambahala Publications, 1990. 380 pages. Also Albany, NY: SUNT Press, 1995. Transpersonal ecology represents a creative meeting ground between environmental philosophy and transpersonal psychology. It brings together the psychologist's understanding of the self beyond personal ego with the ecologist's belief in the inherent value of all living things. An in-depth analysis of the deep ecology movement. Fox is a National Research Fellow at the Center for Environmental Studies at the University of Tasmania. (v1,#3) A major discussion of the philosophy of deep ecology by one of its leading advocates. For the last ten years, Fox has been a prolific commentator and defender of the philosophy of Arne Naess, and this book (an expansion of his doctoral dissertation) is the first complete expression of his views. Fox sees a connection between the deep ecology emphasis on "identification" and recent work in "transpersonal psychology"---thus he changes the name of "deep ecology" to "transpersonal ecology." For Fox, "Naess's philosophical sense of deep ecology...refers to a psychologically based approach to the question of our relationship with the rest of nature" (p. 197). Fox's view of Naess is in contrast to the standard interpretation of deep ecology as an ethical or axiological theory. Fox provides an in-depth analysis of Naess's three senses of deep ecology: (1) formal derivation of principles; (2) philosophical sense of self-realization; and (3) popular sense of eco-centrism. More importantly, he discusses the place of deep ecological thought in environmental philosophy generally, and evaluates the criticisms of opponents. Although Fox is correct in moving beyond the axiological side of deep ecology, he places too much emphasis on psychological "identification" with the natural world; the most justifiable sense of deep ecology is as an ontological and phenomenological description of the world. See Naess, below. The book contains an excellent bibliography and exhaustive footnotes. (Katz, Bibl # 2) Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 15(1993):181-83.
Fox, Warwick, "Transpersonal Ecology and the Varieties of Identification." In This Sacred Earth: A Reader on Religion, Nature, and the Environment, pp. 436-44. Edited by Roger Gottlieb. New York: Routledge, 1996.
Fox, Warwick, Toward a Transpersonal Ecology: Developing New Foundations for Environmentalism. Boston and London: Shambhala Publications, 1990. US reprint edition: New York: The State University of New York Press, 1995. UK and European reprint edition: Totnes, Devon: Green Books, 1995. Japanese language edition: Toransupasonaru Ekoroji'i. Tokyo: Heibon-sha, 1994.
Fox, Warwick, "Transpersonal Ecology." In Paths Beyond Ego: The Transpersonal Vision, pp. 240-41. Edited by Roger Walsh and Frances Vaughan. Los Angeles, California: Jeremy P. Tarcher, 1993.
Fox, Warwick. Toward a Transpersonal Ecology: Developing Foundations for Environmentalism. Albany: State University Press of New York, 1995. Earlier published Boston: Shambahala Publications, 1990. (v6,#3)
Fox, Wawrick, "Self and World: A Transpersonal, Ecological Approach." ReVision 13 (1991): 116-21.
Gunn, Alastair S. Review of Toward a Transpersonal Ecology: Developing New Foundations for Environmentalism. By Warwick Fox. Environmental Ethics 15(1993):181-83.
Journal of Environmental Psychology, vol. 15, no. 3 (September 1995), is a special issue on Green Psychology, edited by Robert Gifford. Included are: --Axelrod, Lawrence J., and Suedfeld, Peter. "Technology, Capitalism, and Christianity: Are They Really the Three Horsemen of the Eco-Collapse?" pp. 183-95. An examination of the evidence for the frequent accusation that technology, capitalism, and Christianity, the three bases of modern Western Society, are root causes of environmental degradation. Although these three are associated with failures to protect the environment, label them as causal factors contradicts known facts. Axelrod and Suedfeld are in psychology at the University of British Columbia. --Biel, Anders, and Garling, Tommy. "The Role of Uncertainty in Resource Dilemmas," pp. 221-33. Resource dilemmas entail a conflict between self-interests and the welfare of a group or society at large. Individuals with a pro-social orientation may act in the interest of the collective, but there are complications due to uncertainty. As the consequences are perceived to be uncertain, increasing uncertainty will be cooperation less consistent. Biel and Garling are in psychology, Gšteborg University, Gšteborg, Sweden. --Reser, Joseph P. "Whither Environmental Psychology? The Transpersonal Ecopsychology Crossroads," pp. 235-57. Ecospychology and its relationship to psychology and environmental psychology, with particular attention to Theodore Rozak. The nature and role of the "self" as the ultimate target and agent of meaningful change. Ecopsychology in Australia, and indigenous "earth wisdom." The prognosis for the greening of psychology is explored. Reser is in psychology at James Cook University, Townsville, Australia. --Kaplan, Stephen. "The Restorative Benefits of Nature: Toward an Integrative Framework," pp. 169-82. Evidence pointing to the psychological benefits of nature has accumulated at a remarkable rate in a relatively short period of time. Natural environments are particularly rich in the characteristics necessary for restorative experiences. Kaplan is in psychology at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. (v7, #3)
McGinnis, Michael Vincent, "Deep Ecology and the Foundations of Restoration," Inquiry 39(no. 2, June, 1996):203-217. "Throughout the globe, degraded ecosystems are in desperate need of restoration. Restoration is based on world-view and the human relationship with the natural world, our place, and the landscape. The question is, can society and its institutions shift from development and use of natural resources to ecological restoration of the natural world without a change in world-view? Some world-views lead to more destructive human behavior than others. Following Naess's ecosophical comparison of the deep and shallow ecology movements, this essay depicts the relationships between restorationists and the natural world. Contrast the anti-restoration position of Katz/Elliot. In deep ecological restoration we can develop a realization that our community is part of the self-producing character of all life. In deep ecological restoration, we find one important medium for the institutionalization, politicalization, and transpersonalization of a deeper understanding of what it means to be human being with nature." McGinnis is with the Center for Bioregional Conflict Resolution, Goleta, CA. (v8,#3)
Mezey, Matthew K. N., Deep Ecology and Transpersonal Psychology: an Enlightening Confrontation?, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 199?.
Mezey, Matthew K. N., Deep Ecology and Transpersonal Psychology: an Enlightening Confrontation?, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 199?. (v7,#1)
Reser, Joseph P. "Whither Environmental Psychology? The Transpersonal Ecopsychology Crossroads," Journal of Environmental Psychology, vol. 15, no. 3 (September 1995): 235-57. Ecospychology and its relationship to psychology and environmental psychology, with particular attention to Theodore Rozak. The nature and role of the "self" as the ultimate target and agent of meaningful change. Ecopsychology in Australia, and indigenous "earth wisdom." The prognosis for the greening of psychology is explored. Reser is in psychology at James Cook University, Townsville, Australia. (v7, #3)
Sylvan, Richard, "A Critique of (Wild) Western Deep Ecology: A Response to Warwick Fox's Response to an Earlier Critique," manuscript paper. "Western deep ecology differs in important respects from the deep ecology originated and pursued by Naess, ... authentic deep ecology. ... Western deep ecology ... is very roughly a doctrine of the west of those new world continents where environmental philosophy functions; it has been advanced primarily by West Coast Americans (Devall, Drengson, Sessions and others) and associated West Australians (Fox, now of Tasmania, also Hallem and others). Unlike authentic deep ecology, Western deep ecology is hostile to environmental ethics, which it tends to dismiss as mere axiology; and it is excessively enthusiastic about transpersonal experience, spiritual `paths' and `ways', and unitarian metaphysics. ... On a personal level, I am quite attracted by authentic deep ecology; but I am substantially repelled by Western deep ecology." Available from: Department of Philosophy, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, P. O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2600. (v1,#2)
Systematic works, Environmental ethics: --Abram, David, The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-than-Human World. New York: Pantheon Books, 1996. --Attfield, Robin, The Ethics of Environmental Concern. Columbia University Press and Blackwell, Oxford, 1983. Second edition, University of Georgia Press, 1992. --Brennan, Andrew, Thinking About Nature: An Investigation of Nature, Value and Ecology. London: Routledge, and Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1988. --Callicott, J. Baird, In Defense of the Land Ethic. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989. --Callicott, J. Baird, Earth's Insights: A Survey of Ecological Ethics from the Mediterranean Basin to the Australian Outback. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994. --Clayton, Patti H., Connection on the Ice: Environmental Ethics in Theory and Practice. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998. --Des Jardins, Joseph R., Environmental Ethics: An Introduction to Environmental Philosophy. First edition, Wadsworth, 1993. Second edition, Wadsworth, 1997. Third edition, Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 2001. --Devall, William, and Sessions, George, Deep Ecology. Peregrine Smith Books, 1985. --Drengson, Alan R., Beyond Environmental Crisis: From Technocrat to Planetary Person. New York: Peter Lang Publishing Co., 1989. --Fox, Warwick, Toward a Transpersonal Ecology: The Context, Influence, Meanings, and Distinctiveness of the Deep Ecology Approach to Ecophilosophy. Boston: Shambhala Publications, 1990. --Hargrove, Eugene C., Foundations of Environmental Ethics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.: Prentice-Hall, 1989. --Johnson, Lawrence E., A Morally Deep World: An Essay on Moral Significance and Environmental Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991. --Katz, Eric, Nature as Subject: Human Obligation and Natural Community. Lanham, MD: Roman and Littlefield, 1997. --Koh‡k, Erazim, The Green Halo: A Bird's-Eye View of Ecological Ethics. Chicago: Open Court, 2000. --Marietta, Don E., For People and the Planet: Holism and Humanism in Environmental Ethics. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1995. --Matthews, Freya, The Ecological Self. Routledge, Barnes and Noble, 1991. --McLaughlin, Andrew, Regarding Nature: Industrialism and Deep Ecology. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1993. --Naess, Arne, Ecology, Community, and Lifestyle: Outline of an Ecosophy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989. Translated and revised by David Rothenberg from Okologi, Samfunn, og Livsstil, published in Norwegian in 1976. --Norton, Bryan G., Toward Unity Among Environmentalists. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. --Palmer, Clare, Environmental Ethics. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 1997 (P. O. Box 1911, Santa Barbara, CA 93116-1911). Especially good as basic resource guide to materials, chronology, principal figures, principal issues. --Palmer, Clare, Environmental Ethics and Process Thinking. Oxford: Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, 1998. --Peacock, Kent, Living with the Earth: An Introduction to Environmental Philosophy. Toronto: Harcourt Brace Canada, 1996. --Pojman, Louis P., Global Environmental Ethics. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Co., 2000. --Pratt, Vernon, with Howarth, Jane, and Brady, Emily, Environment and Philosophy. London and New York: Routledge, 2000. --Rolston, III, Holmes, Conserving Natural Value. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994. --Rolston, III, Holmes, Environmental Ethics. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988. --Sagoff, Mark, The Economy of the Earth: Philosophy, Law, and the Environment. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988. --Smith, Pamela, What Are They Saying About Environmental Ethics? Mahway, NJ: Paulist Press, 1997. --Stone, Christopher F., Earth and Other Ethics. New York: Harper and Row, 1987. --Sylvan, Richard, and Bennett, David, The Greening of Ethics: From Human Chauvinism to Deep-Green Theory. Tucson: University of Arizona Press; and Cambridge UK: White Horse Press, 1994. --Taylor, Paul, Respect for Nature. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986. --Wenz, Peter S., Environmental Justice. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988. --Wenz, Peter S., Environmental Ethics Today. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. --Westra, Laura, An Environmental Proposal for Ethics: The Principle of Integrity. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1994. --end, systematic works.
Talbot, Carl, Review of Fox, Warwick, "Towards a Transpersonal Ecology." Environmental Values Vol.1 No.2(1992):178.
Zimmerman, Michael, Contesting Earth's Future: Radical Ecology and Postmodernity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994. 447 pages. Cloth $30.00. Having once interpreted Heidegger as a forerunner of deep ecology, Zimmerman rethinks his position about deep ecology in particular and radical ecology in general (including ecofeminism and social ecology) in view of recent disclosures of the links between Heidegger's thought and Nazism. To what extent does radical ecology (unwittingly) hold views that are consistent with the reactionary attitudes of fascism? In what respects is radical ecology a dimension of "postmodernity," defined as an epoch that questions the progressive optimism of technological modernity? Zimmerman tries to answer these questions in part by assessing the recent debates among deep ecology, social ecology, and ecofeminism. Appealing to the work of transpersonal theorist Ken Wilber, who maintains that humankind is taking part in a progressive development of consciousness, of which the ecological crisis is a surmountable symptom, Zimmerman tries to mediate the sometimes bitter dispute between deep ecology and social ecology. Though some ecofeminists maintain that "progressive" ideas justify the domination of emotions, the body, woman, and nature, Zimmerman shows the extent to which ecofeminism can and should acknowledge the "emancipatory" dimension of modernity. Finally, recognizing that radical ecology's hope for a low-tech future may well go unfulfilled, Zimmerman explores "critical postmodern" visions of the future high-tech relation between humanity and nature, including the startling vision contained in Donna Haraway's "Cyborg Manifesto." Zimmerman is in philosophy at Tulane University, New Orleans. (v5,#4)
Result of search for " philosophy of mind":
Godfrey-Smith, Peter. Complexity and the Function of Mind in Nature. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 324 pages. $ 50, cloth. The relationship between intelligence and environmental complexity. Philosophy of mind related to more general issues about the relations between organisms and environments. Godfrey-Smith is at Stanford University. (v7, #3)
Griffin, Donald R., Animal Minds. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992. 310 pages. $ 24.95 hardbound. Continuing a series of earlier books, Griffin maintains that animals do think, now with further evidence from animal behavior, the philosophy of mind, and cognitive science. Griffin is at the Museum of Comparative Anatomy, Harvard. (v4,#2)
Result of search for "pantheism":
Cooper, David E., Palmer, Joy A., eds. Spirit of the Environment: Religion, Value and Environmental Concern. London: Routledge, 1998. 204 pages. Contains: --Bilimoria, Purushottama, "Indian Religious Traditions," pp. 1-14. --Palmer, Martin, "Chinese Religion and Ecology," pp. 15-29. --Bartolomeus (His All-Holiness Bartolomeus), Hertzberg, Arthur (Rabbi), and Khalid, Fazlun, "Religion and Nature: The Abrahamic Faiths' Concepts of Creation," pp. 30-41. --Clark, Stephen R.L., "Pantheism," pp. 42-56. --Mathews, Freya, "The Real, the One and the Many in Ecological Thought," pp. 57-72. --Primavesi, Anne, "The Recovery of Wisdom: Gaia Theory and Environmental Policy," pp. 73-85. --Milton, Kay, "Nature and the Environment in Indigenous and Traditional Cultures," pp. 86-99. --Cooper, David E., "Aestheticism and Environmentalism," pp. 100-112. --Garrard, Greg, "The Romantics' View of Nature," pp. 113-130. --Rawles, Kate, "Philosophy and the Environmental Movement," pp. 131-145. --Palmer, Joy, "Spiritual Ideas, Environmental Concerns and Educational Practice," pp. 146-167. --Smith, Richard, "Spirit of Middle Earth: Practical Thinking for an Instrumental Age," pp. 168-181. Cooper is in philosophy, Palmer in education, at the University of Durham, UK. (v9,#1)
Crosby, Donald A., Hardwick, Charley D. eds. Religious Experience and Ecological Responsibility (Volume 3 in American Liberal Religious Thought). New York: Peter Lang, 1996. 652 pages. $74.95 hardcover. Contains: Frederick FerrŽ, "Keeping It Together: Holistic Reflections from a `Natural Analyst'"; Nancy Frankenberry, "The Earth Is Not Our Mother"; D.W.D. Shaw, "The Wreck of `The Braer'", Donald A. Crosby, "Experience As Reality: The Ecological Metaphysics of William James"; Susan Armstrong, "An Outline of a Theology of Difference"; J. Edward Barrett, "Ecological Reverence: Or, Religion Rediscovering Reality"; Noel Boulting, "Grounding the Notion of Ecological Responsibility: Peircian Perspectives"; J. Harley Chapman, "The Practice of Natural Piety as a Spiritual Discipline"; Hermann Deuser, "Charles S. Peirce's Contribution to Cosmology and Religion"; Lewis E. Hahn, "A Contextualistic View of Experience and Ecological Responsibility"; Fred W. Hallberg, "Demythologizing Eschatological Environmentalism"; Nancy R. Howell, "The Paradox of Power: An Ecofeminist Reflection upon Diversity"; John Howie, "Personalism and a Holistic Environmental Ethics"; Charles S. Milligan, "The Eco-Religious Case for Naturalistic Pantheism"; Leslie A. Muray, "Meland's Mystical Naturalism and Ecological Responsibility"; Jerome Stone, "Caring for the Web of Life: Towards a Public Ecotheology"; Douglas Sturm, "Faith, Ecology, and the Demands of Social Justice: On Shattering the Boundaries of Moral Community"; and papers on other themes. Crosby is in philosophy at Colorado State University; Hardwick in religious studies at American University. (v7,#1)
Levine, Michael P., "Pantheism, Ethics, and Ecology." Environmental Values 3(1994):121-138. Pantheism is a metaphysical and religious position. Broadly defined it is the view that (1) "God is everything and everything is God...the world is either identical with God or in some way a self-expression of his nature" (H.P. Owen). Similarly, it is the view that (2) everything that exists constitutes a `unity' and this all-inclusive unity is in some sense divine (A. MacIntyre). I begin with an account of what the pantheist's ethical position is formally likely to be. I then discuss the relationship between pantheism and ecology in the context of the search for the metaphysical and ethical foundations for an ecological ethic. It is claimed that it is no accident that pantheism is often looked to for such foundations. KEYWORDS: ecology, environment, ethics, pantheism, Spinoza. Levine is in philosophy at the University of Western Australia. (EV)
Russell, Colin A., The Earth, Humanity and God. The Templeton Lectures, Cambridge, 1993. London: UCL Press, 1994. The Earth in space. The Earth in time. Fragile planet. "Hurt not the Earth" (Science and environmental problems, the chemical industry, nuclear technology). Foes of the Earth (Human ignorance, greed, aggression, arrogance). "Mother Earth?" Gaia (Self-regulating systems). Surveying the prospects. Hope for the Earth (intrinsic value, creation and restoration, human stewardship, divine destiny, a new creation). Russell dislikes materialist science, but equally a postmodernist pantheism with an organismic view of nature, a kind of "return to myth," neither good science nor good theology. Stewardship, combining biblical and scientific outlooks, is the most adequate model. Russell is at the Open University, UK. (EE v.12,#1)
Wood, Harold W., Jr. "Modern Pantheism as an Approach to Environmental Ethics." Environmental Ethics 7(1985):151-63. While philosophers debate the precise articulation of philosophical theory to achieve a desirable change in environmental attitudes, they may be neglecting the fountainhead of social change. Insofar as ordinary people are concerned, it is religion which is the greatest factor in determining morality. In order to achieve an enlightened environmental ethics, we need what can only be termed a "religious experience." While not denying the efficacy of other religious persuasions, I explore the contribution of an informed modern Pantheism to environmental ethics. The conceptual division of the holy and the world is rectified by pantheism. As a form of "nature mysticism," pantheism promotes a theological basis for achieving oneness with God through knowledge, devotion, and works, all of which establish an enlightened theory for environmental ethics. A modern pantheism bears investigation by those advocating new ethical approaches toward the environment. Wood is founder of the Universal Pantheist Society, Big Pine, CA. (EE)
Result of search for "animism":
Earth Ethics, vol. 8, nos. 2-3, Winter/Spring 1997, contains several articles on the proposed UN Earth Charter: --"The Earth Charter, Benchmark Draft" --Rockefeller, Steven C., "The Earth Charter Process" --Clugston, Richard M., "A Common Ground for Global Earth Ethics?" --Jaaffar, Mehdi Ahmed, "The Earth Charter--The Oman Report" (a report from the Sultanate of Oman) --Burford, Grace, Sallie King, Paul Knittier, and Jay McDaniel, "A Buddhist-Christian Contribution to the Earth Charter" (two authors are Buddhists; two are Christians) --Dwivedi, O. P., "India's Heritage of Environmental Stewardship" and a forum with contributions by Vaclav Havel, Brendon Mackey, David McCloskey, also excerpts from the report of a working group of the Commission on Sustainable Development. There is also a section on "Common Critiques of the Earth Charter," and response. The critiques are: 1. The Earth Charter is a norther, environmental document that does not take into account the realities of the global south. 2. The Earth Charter's romantic animism and "new age" thinking are not defensible scientifically, despite repeated historical attempts to assert an organicist or vitalist world view. 3. The Earth Charter is a step backward. The language is feeble because it fails to integrate and assert the best language already in place in existing documents, crafted in the nearly endless series of UN Summits, from Rio through Rome. 4. The Earth Charter is not poetic, spiritual or moving enough. Too much has been written by committee, resulting in a hodge-podge of poetry, philosophical musings, and UN bureaucratic language. All the articles are short and concentrated. The draft Charter and these discussions can make stimulating class materials. (v8,#3)
Rowe, Garry M. "Shortage and Tension on the Upper Rio Grande: Protecting Endangered Species during Times of Drought--The Role of the Bureau of Reclamation, A Brief Overview of Relationships in the Upper Rio Grande Basin." Natural Resources Journal 39(No. 1, Winter 1999):141- . (v10,#4) Rowe, Stan, "Eine Erd-Ethik fźr die Menschheit (article in German). An Earth-based ethics for humanity. Natur und Kultur, Vol. 1/2, 2000, pp. 106-120. Nature in the large sense is Earth, the ecosphere, the source of Life and therefore the best metaphor for Life. Humans are co-evolved parts of nature, and their achievements of language and Culture are derived in many ways from the creative Earth. This ecological fact suggests an ethical imperative: Revere the Earth and its sectoral ecosystems, for their importance is greater than that of any single species. An Earth-ethic--a modern form of Animism--goes beyond humanism and biocentrism, broadening the basis of religious sensibility. (v.11,#4)
Result of search for "magic":
Abram, David, "The Ecology of Magic," Orion Nature Quarterly, summer 1991. "The traditional shaman ... is in many ways the `ecologist' of a tribal society. He or she acts as intermediary between the human community and the larger ecological field, regulating the flow of nourishment, not just from the landscape to the human inhabitants, but from the human community back to the local earth. By his or her constant rituals, trances, ecstacies, and `journeys' the shaman ensures that the relation between human society and the larger society of beings is balanced and reciprocal, and that the village never takes more from the living land than it returns." "Sadly, our society's relation to the living biosphere can in no way be considered a reciprocal or balanced one. ... From an animistic perspective, the clearest source of all this distress, both physical and psychological, lies in the ... violence perpetrated by our civilization; only by alleviating the latter will we be able to heal the former. ... We are human only in contact and conviviality with what is not human. Only in reciprocity with what is Other will we begin to heal ourselves." (v2,#4)
Abram, David. The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-than-Human World. New York: Pantheon Books, 1996. 333 pages. $25.00 cloth. "Nobody writes about the ecological depths of the human and more-than-human world with more love and lyrical sensitivity than David Abram" (Theodore Roszak). A sleight-of-hand magician as well as a philosopher, Abram has lived and traded magic with indigenous magicians on several continents. Starting from the intimate relation between these practitioners and the animals, plants, and natural elements, his book draws the reader into investigations regarding the fluid, participatory nature of perception, and the reciprocity between our senses and the sensuous earth. This unfolds into an exploration of language, and the power words have to enhance or to stifle the spontaneous life of the senses. Our most cherished human attributes--from the gift of language, to the awareness of past and future, to the rational intellect itself--all emerge in interaction with the animate natural world, and remain wholly dependent upon that living world for their coherence. "I know of no work more valuable for shifting our thinking and feeling about the place of humans in the world. Your children and their children will be grateful to him; the planet itself must be glad"--James Hillman, psychologist). "Scholars will doubtless recognize its brilliance, but they may overlook the most important part of Abram's achievement: he has written the best instruction manual yet for becoming fully human. I walked outside when I was done and the world was a different place" (Bill McKibben). "A masterpiece--combining poetic passion with intellectual rigor and daring. Electric with energy, it offers us a new model of scholarly inquiry: as a fully embodied human animal. It opens pathways and vistas that will be fruitfully explored for years, indeed for generations, to come" (Joanna Macy, deep ecology activist). Abram is an ecologist and philosopher, with a PhD from SUNY, Stony Brook. (v6,#4)
Ghai, Dharam P., ed., Development and Environment: Sustaining People and Nature. Oxford and Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers, 1994. 263 pages. Contents include the following: --Hviding, Edvard, Baines, Graham, B.K. "Community-based Fisheries Management, Tradition and the Challenges of Development in Marovo, Solomon Islands," pp. 13-40. --Amanor, Kojo, "Ecological Knowledge and the Regional Economy: Environmental Management in the Asesewa District of Ghana," pp. 41-68. --Colchester, Marcus, "Sustaining the Forests: The Community-based Approach in South and South-East Asia," pp. 69-100. --Gadgil, Madhav, Guha, Ramachandra, "Ecological Conflicts and the Environmental Movement in India," pp. 101-136. --Joekes, Susan, Heyzer, Noeleen, Oniang'o, Ruth, Salles, Vania, "Gender, Environment and Population," pp. 137. --Vivian, Jessica, "NGOs and Sustainable Development in Zimbabwe: No Magic Bullets," pp. 167-194. --Ghimire, Krishna B. "Parks and People: Livelihood Issues in National Parks Management in Thailand and Madagascar," pp. 195-230. --Utting, Peter, "Social and Political Dimensions of Environmental Protection in Central America," pp. 321-260. (v.9,#4)
Kealey, Daniel H. Revisioning Environmental Ethics. Chapter titles: Environmental Ethics and Psychohistory; Mental and Magical Environmental Ethics; Mythic and Integral Environmental Ethics, Plotinus on Nature and Contemplation and the One; All Life is Yoga; Towards an Integral Ecological Ethic. Drawing on Plotinus, Aurobindo, and Max Scheler, Kealey outlines an adequate ecological ethic. Kealey is assistant professor in the department of philosophy and religion at Towson State University. 131 pages. State University of New York Press, 1990. $ 44.50 hardback, $ 14.95 paper. (v1,#2)
Kealey, Daniel A., Revisioning Environmental Ethics. Albany: SUNY Press, 1990. Pp. xiii, 136. This short book is another contribution to a growing literature analyzing the "world-view" that has caused the environmental crisis. Kealey uses the psychohistorical concepts of Jean Gebser---the archaic, magical, mythic, and mental---as a "hermeneutical tool" for the analysis of various strands of environmental philosophy. He argues for an "integral" ecological ethic combining aspects of neoplatonism, Asian philosophy, and personalism. (Katz, Bibl # 2)
Morgan, Marlo, Mutant Message Down Under. Lees Summit, MO: MM CO, 1991. 191 pages. New York: HarperCollins, 1994. 187 pages. Marlo Morgan, from Kansas, goes on a three-month barefoot walk with an Australian aboriginal tribe across the continent, learning their wisdom. A New York Times best-seller, seemingly appreciating the native wisdom of a tribe who sustain themselves in the desert by magical powers and mystical community, though more fiction than fact about actual aboriginal wisdom. But see a review by Val Plumwood in Environmental Ethics 18(1996):431-435.
Sagoff, Mark, "Do We Consume Too Much?" The Atlantic Monthly 279 (No. 6, June, 1997):80-96. With vigorous reply: Ehrlich, Paul R., Daly, Gretchen C., Daly, Scott C., Myers, Norman, and Salzman, James, "No Middle Way on the Environment," 280 (No. 6. December, 1997):98-104. Also see Partridge, Ernest, "How Much is too Much?" listed separately. Sagoff: "It is simply wrong to believe that nature sets physical limits to economic growth. ... The idea that increasing consumption will inevitably lead to depletion and scarcity, as plausible as it may seem, is mistaken both in principle and in fact" (p. 83). Such beliefs come from mistaken beliefs that mineral resources are finite, that we are running out of food and timber, we are running out of energy, and that resource consumption by the wealthy north exploits the poorer nations of south. Although our present consumption patterns cannot be sustained, better technology will help us surmount natural limits without requiring substantial changes beyond what we are willing to adopt. Shades of Julian Simon! But Sagoff does not advocate high levels of consumption. The more significant limits to resource use and consumption are inherent in our spiritual needs for affiliation with nature and not in nature itself. "An intimacy with nature ends our isolation in the world. We know where we belong, and we can find the way home" "The question before us is not whether we are going to run out of resources. It is whether economics is the appropriate context for thinking about environmental policy" (p. 96). Sagoff thinks not. He not only has great faith in technology, he has even more faith that a people who discover themselves to be unlimited by nature will voluntarily limit themselves for spiritual communion with nature. "We consume too much when consumption becomes an end in itself and makes us lose affection and reverence for the natural world" (p. 96). Ehrlich, the Dailys, Myers, and Salzman respond that Sagoff "has done a disservice to the public by promoting once again the dangerous idea that technological fixes will solve the human predicament" (p. 98). Sagoff misperceives his own misperceptions. Resources are finite, nature's services are threatened by consumption, prices are not reliable signals of resource scarcity, technology is no magic solution, and wealthy nations do exploit poorer nations. Sagoff's claims run counter to a statement signed by 1,500 leading scientists, including more than half of all living Nobel laureates in the sciences, as well as another statement issued by fifty-eight scientific academies, representing the global scientific community and including the U.S. National Academy, the British Royal Society, the French, German, Swedish, Russian, and Indian Academies. "Thus the very people who would produce the technological fixes in which Sagoff places such faith do not share his complacency" (p. 99). Middle-ground statements are muddled and encourage the present trajectory. "The temptation to look for the truth `somewhere in the middle' may be dangerous folly." (EE v.12,#1)
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