Czarist Russia gobbled up central Asian terrirtory in a conquest that took 150 years, until the end of the 19th century.
There was an intence jostling for control when Britain became fearfull of Russia's design in its Indian realm. Afghanistan was one of the territories at stake. Part of a forrunner to the cold war.
Note: After the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan oil pipelines were constructed through the country from the Casian Sea basin, strait to the world market.
Thom Hartmann, in his book the Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight, explains that our worlds dependency on oil is a crisis waiting to happen, and much sooner than is liked to be admitted:
"The world is currently living (and growing) by drawing on its "savings account" of energy (sunlight) stored in fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal). We've
used these fuels to support the increase of our population from around a half-billion people before the discovery of oil and coal, to today's figure of six billion.
With the rapid increase of people and nead for more fuel, our supply will be ever coser to it's limit.
Through thousands of years of history we've seen that when fuel runs short, wars break out. For another thing, our "other energy sourses" aren't yet developed enough. Pulitzer Prize winner Ross Gelbspan (in a his 1997 book The
Heat is On) shows that the American oil and coal industries are actively blocking the development of those technologies.
As Gelbspan clearly shows, we need to expand our development of the alternatives, so when the oil runs dry there will be somewhere else for our children to turn."