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EQUAL JUSTICE?

Adelphia Communications Owner and Sons Indicted For Allegedly Looting Cable TV Provider

No Arrests in Enron, Global Crossing, Halliburton, or WorldCom Scandals
Washington, DC) Judicial Watch, the public interest group that investigates and prosecutes government corruption, observed Bush Justice Department pronouncements that Adelphia Communications founder and former chairman and CEO John Rigas, 77, were arrested on federal conspiracy charges brought by the Justice Department, along with Timothy Rigas, a former company chief financial officer, and Michael Rigas, another former company executive for allegedly looting the cable TV provider and using it as their "personal piggy bank."

In addition to the criminal charges brought by the Justice Department, the Securities and Exchange Commission brought a civil lawsuit Wednesday in federal court, calling the case "one of the most extensive financial frauds ever to take place at a public company."

Not coincidentally, no criminal charges or arrests have been brought by the Bush-Cheney Justice Department in connection with high officials of Enron, Halliburton, Global Crossing or WorldCom. President Bush and senior members of his administration have close ties to Enron and its CEO, Kenneth Lay, who the president affectionately calls, "Kenny Boy." Vice President Cheney was the CEO of Halliburton in the late 1990s. Global Crossing and WorldCom were both large contributors to the two major political parties.

"This is an attempt to create the illusion of tough enforcement by the Bush-Cheney Justice Department concerning the nation's securities laws, but it does not address the Bush-Cheney administration's failures to aggressively pursue the Enron, Global Crossing, Halliburton and WorldCom scandals. It is conveniently timed (as the stock market crashes) to seem like tough action, but today's arrests probably have more to do with sinking presidential opinion polls than with this administration's commitment to exposing corporate corruption. We have yet to see an American corporate executive from any of those more significant, but politically connected corporate scandals led away in handcuffs," stated Judicial Watch Chairman and General Counsel Larry Klayman.

homepage: homepage: http://www.judicialwatch.org/2213.shtml
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Knowing the terms of surrender 24.Jul.2002 17:49

Al Kye Da

Black's
LAW DICTIONARY
Fifth Edition, 1979,
(unless otherwise noted as Black's 4th)
By Henry Campbell Black, M.A.
West Publishing Co., St Paul Minn.
ALLEGIANCE: Obligation of fidelity and obedience to government in consideration for protection that government gives. U.S. v. Kuhn, D.C.N.Y. 49 F.Supp. 407,414
LOCAL OR ACTUAL ALLEGIANCE, is the measure of obedience due from a subject of one government to another government, within whose territory he is temporarily resident. From this are expected foreign sovereigns and their representatives, naval and armed forces when permitted to remain in or to pass through the country or its waters.
NATURAL ALLEGIANCE: In English law, that kind of allegiance which is due from all men born within the kings dominion immediately upon their birth, which is intrinsic and perpetual, and cannot be divested by any act of their own. In American law, the allegiance due from citizens of the United States to their native country, and also from naturalized citizens, and which cannot be renounced without the permission of government, to be declared by law.
Body Politic of Corporate: A social compact by which the whole people covenants with each citizen, & each citizen with the whole people, that all shall be governed by certian laws for the common good, Uricich.v. Kolesar, 54 Ohio App. 309, 7 N.E.2d 413, 414. A term applied to a corporation. County. Bazzoli v. Larson, 40 Ohio App. 321, 178 N.E. N.E. 331, 332; Lindburg v. Bennett, 177 Neb. 66, 219 N.W. 851, 855. Municipality. ... School District ... State or nation or public associations ... (Black's 4th)
Certificate: A written assurance * * * that some act has or has not been done, or some event occurred, or some legal formality has been complied with. A document certifying that one has fulfilled the requirements of and may practice in a field.
Citizen: One who, under the Constitution & Laws of ... a particular state, is a member of the political community ..." ...
"Citizens" are members of a political community who, in their associated capacity, have established or submitted themselves to the dominion of a government for the promotion of their general welfare & the protection of their individual as well as their collective rights. Herriott v. City of Seattle, 81 Wash.2d 48, 500 P.2d 101, 109 . "
Civil Action: Action brought to enforce, redress, or protect private rights. In general, all types of actions other than criminal proceedings. N.C. 710, 104 S.E.2d 861, 863. The term includes all actions, both those formerly known as equitable actions & those known as legal actions, or, in other phraseology, both suits in equity & actions at law. ...
Civil Law: That body of law which every particular nation, commonwealth, or city has established peculiarly for itself; more properly called "municipal" law, to distinguish it from the "law of nature", & from international law. Laws concerned with civil or private rights & remedies, as contrasted with criminal laws.
The system of jurisprudence held and administered in the Roman empire, particularly as set forth in the compilation of Justinian, & his successors, - compromising the Institutes, Code, Digest, & Novels, & collectively denominated the "Corpus Juris Civilus", - as distinguished from the common law of England & the canon law. ...
Collateral attack. With respect to a judicial proceeding, an attempt to avoid, defeat, or evade it, or deny its force and effect, in some incidental proceeding not provided by law for the express purpose of attacking it. May v. Casker, 188 Okl.448, 110 P.2d 287, 289. An attack on a Judgement in any manner other than by action or proceeding, whose very purpose is to impeach or overturn the judgement; or, stated affirmatively, a collateral attack on a judgement is an attack made by or in an action or proceeding that has an independent purpose other than impeaching or overturning the judgement. Travis v. Travis' Estate, 79 Wyo. 320, 334 P.2d 508, 510.
Collateral, adj. By the side; at the side; attached upon the side. Not lineal; but upon a parallel or diverging line. Additional or auxiliary; supplementary; co-operating; accompanying as a secondary fact, or acting as a secondary agent. ..."
"Common law". As distinguished from law created by the enactment of legislatures, the common law comprises the body of those principles and rules of action, relating to the government and security of persons and property, which derive their authority solely from usages and customs of immemorial antiquity, or from the judgements and decrees of the courts recognizing, affirming, and enforcing such usages and customs; and in this sense particularly the ancient unwritten law of England. The "Common law" is all the statutory and case law background of England and the American colonies before the American Revolution.
"Common law" consists of those principles, usage and rules of action applicable to government and security of persons and property which do not rest for their authority upon any express and positive declaration of the will of the legislature.
As distinguished from ecclesiastical law, it is the system of jurisprudence administered by the purely secular tribunals. ...
In a broad sense, "common law" may designate all that part of the positive law, juristic theory, and ancient custom of any state or nation which is of general and universal application, thus marking off special or local rules or customs."
Common-law jurisdiction: Jurisdiction of a court to try and decide such cases as were cognizable by the courts of law under the English common law. The jurisdiction of those courts which exercise their judicial powers according to the course of the common law.
Court: An organ of government, belonging to the Judicial Department, whose functions is the application of laws to controversies brought before it and the public administration of justice.
Decanatus: A deaconry. A company of ten persons. Also a town or tithing consisting originally of ten families of freeholders. Ten tithings compose a hundred.
Decanus: In Ecclesiastical & old European law, an officer having supervision over ten, a dean. A term applied not only to ecclesiastical, but to civil and military, officers. An officer among the Saxons who presided over a friborg, tithing, decannary, or association of ten inhabitants; otherwise called a "tithing man" or "borsholder", his duties being those of an inferior judicial officer. Decanus militarius; a military officer having command of ten soldiers. In Roman law, an officer having the command of a company ... of ten soldiers.
Direct attack: A direct attack on a Judgement or decree is an attempt, for sufficient cause, to have it annulled, reversed, vacated, corrected, declared void, or enjoined, in a proceeding instituted for that specific purpose, such as an appeal, writ of error, bill of review, or injunction to restrain its execution; distinguished from a collateral attack, which is an attempt to impeach the validity or binding force of the judgement or decree as a side issue or in a proceeding instituted for some other purpose. Ernell v. O'Fiel, Tex.Civ.App., 441 S.W.2d 653, 655. A direct attack on a judicial proceeding is an attempt to void or correct it in some manner provided by law.
Establish. This word occurs frequently in the Constitution of the United States, and it is there used in different meanings (1) to settle firmly, to fix unalterably; as to establish justice, which is the avowed object of the Constitution. To settle or fix firmly; place on a permanent footing; found; create; put beyond doubt or dispute; prove; convince..."
Ex Rel & Ex Relatione "Upon relation or information. Legal proceedings which are instituted by the attorney general (or other proper person) in the name and behalf of the state, but on the information and at the instigation of an individual who has a private interest in the matter, are said to be "on the relation" (ex relatione) of such person, who is usually called the "realtor". Such a cause is usually entitled thus: "State ex erl. Doe v Roe."
General: From Latin word genus. It relates to the whole kind, class, or order. Pertaining to or designating the genus or class, as distinguished from that which characterizes the species or individual; universal, not particularized, as opposed to special; principal or central, as opposed to local; open or available to all; as opposed to select; obtaining commonly, or recognized universally, as opposed to particular; universal or unbounded, as opposed to limited; comprehending the whole or directed to the whole, as distinguished from anything applying to or designated for a portion only. Extensive or common to many.
General Jurisdiction: Such as extends to all controversies that may be brought before a court within the legal bounds of rights & remedies; as opposed to special or limited jurisdiction, which covers only a particular class of cases, or cases where the amount in controversy is below a particular sum, or which is subject to specific exceptions. ..."
General Law: A law that affects the community at large. A general law as contradistinguished from one that is special or local, is a law that embraces a class of subjects or places, and does not omit any subject or place naturally belonging to such class. A law, framed in general terms, restricted to no locality, and operating equally upon all of a group of objects, which, having regard to the purposes of the legislation, are distinguished by characteristics sufficiently marked and important to make them a class by themselves, is not a special or local law, but a general law. A law that relates to a subject of a general nature, or class, while one relating to particular persons or things of a class is a "special law:"
Govern: To direct or control the actions or conduct of, either by established laws or by arbitrary will ..."
Government: From the Latin gubernaculum. Signifies the instrument, the helm, whereby the ship to which the state was compared, was guided on its course by the "gubernator" or helmsman, & in that view, the government is but an agency of the state, distinguished as it must be in accurate thought from the scheme & machinery of government. ...
The system of polity in a state; that form of fundamental rules & principles by which a nation or state is governed, or by which individual members of a body politic are to regulate their social actions. A constitution, either written or unwritten, by which the rights & duties of citizens & public officers are prescribed & defined ... The sovereign or supreme power in a state or nation The machinery by which the sovereign power in a state expresses its will & exercises its functions; or the framework of political institutions, departments, & offices, by means of which the executive, judicial, legislative, & administrative business of the state is carried on. ... The regulation, restraint, supervision or control which is exercised upon the individual membersof an organized jural society by those invested with authority; or the act of exercising supreme political power or control.
Hundred: Under the Saxon organization of England, each county or shire was composed of an indefinite number of hundreds, each hundred containing ten tithings, or groups of ten families of freeholders or frank-pledges. The hundred was governed by a high constable, and had it's own court; but its most remarkable feature was the corporate responsibility of the whole for the crimes or defaults of the individual members. The introduction of this plan of organization into England is commonly ascribed to Alfred, but the idea, as well of the collective liability as of the division, was probably known to the ancient German peoples, as we find the same thing established in the Frankish kingdom under Clothshire, and in Denmark. 1 Bl.Comm. 115; 4 Bl.Comm 411.
"Infidel: One who does not believe in the existence of a God who will reward or punish in this world or in that which is to come. One who professes no religion that can bind his conscience to speak the truth. One who does not recognize the inspiration or obligation of the Holy Scriptures, or generally recognized features of the Christian Religion."
Imparlance: In early practice ... The term signified leave given to the parties to talk together; i.e., with a view to settling their differences amicably.
In Propria Persona: In one' s own proper person. It was formerly a rule of pleading that pleas to the jurisdiction of the court must be plead in propria persona, because if pleaded by attorney they admit the jurisdiction, as an attorney is an officer of the court, and he is presumed to plead after having obtained leave, which admits the jurisdiction.
Justice: ... Proper Administration of Laws. In Jurisprudence, the constant and perpetual disposition to of legal matters or disputes, to render to every man his due.
In Feudal law, jurisdiction: judicial cognizance of causes or offences: High justice was the jurisdiction or right of trying crimes of every kind, even the highest. This was a privilege claimed and exercised by the great lords or barons of the middle ages.
Justices of the hundred: Hundredors, lords of the hundreds. In Old English law, they who had the jurisdiction of hundreds & held the hundred courts.
Justificators: A kind of compurgators, or those who by oath justified the innocence or oaths of others; as in the case of wager of law.
Justitia debet esse libera, (more Latin ...) Justice ought to be free, because nothing is more iniquitous than venal justice; full, because Justice ought not to halt; & speedy, because delay is a kind of denial.
Justitia est constas (more Latin ...), Justice is a steady and unceasing disposition to render to every man his due.
Justitia est virtus excellens et altissimo complacens: Justice is excellent virtue and pleasing to the most high.
Justitia firmatur solium: By justice is the throne established.
Justitia non est neganda non differenda: Justice is neither to be denied or delayed.
Justitia non novit: (more Latin ...), Justice knows not father nor mother; justice looks at truth alone.
Lex Terra: The law of the land. The common law, or the due course of the common law; the general law of the land. Equivalent to "due process of law". In the strictest sense, trial by oath; the privilege of making oath.
Liberties: Privileged districts exempt from the sheriff's jurisdiction; as "goal liberties". See Goal. In colonial times, laws or legal rights resting upon them. The early colonial ordinances in Massachusetts were termed laws & liberties, and the code of 1641 the "Body of Liberties". ... Formerly, political subdivisions of Philadelphia; as, Northern Liberties. (Blacks 4th)
Liberty to Hold Pleas: The liberty of having a court of one's own. Thus certain lords had the privilege of holding pleas within their own manors. (Blacks 4th)
License: The permission to do * * * an act which, without such permission, would be illegal, a trespass, or a tort.Permission to do something which without the license would not be allowable. Privilege from the state or sovereign. A permit * * * to pursue some occupation or to carry on some business subject to regulation under the police power. Authority to carry on some trade or business which would otherwise be unlawful. A license confers upon licensee neither contractual, nor vested rights. Nor does it create a property right.
Loquela: A colloquy; talk. In old English law, this term denoted the oral arguments of the parties to a suit which led to the issue, now called the pleadings. It also designated an "imparlance" both names evidently referring to the talking together of the parties.
Lord: A Feudal Superior.
Natural Law: This expression ... was largely used in the philosophical speculations of the Roman jurists of the Antonine age, and was intended to denote a system of rules and principles for the guidance of human conduct which independently of enacted law or of the systems peculiar to any one people, might be discovered by the rational intelligence of man, and would be found to grow out of and conform to his nature, meaning ... his whole mental, moral, and physicalconstitution.
The point of departure for this conception was the Stoic doctrine of a life ordered "according to nature" which in its turn rested upon the <debated / purely suppositious> existence, in primitive times, of a "state of nature" ... a condition of society in which men universally were governed solely by a rational and consistent obedience to the needs, impulses, and promptings of their true nature, such nature being as yet undefaced by dishonesty, falsehood, or indulgence of the baser passions.
In ethics, it consists of practical universal judgements which man himself elicts.These express necessary and obligatory rules of human conduct which have been established by the author of human nature as essential to the divine purpose of the universeand have been promulgated by God solely through human reason."
Neighborhood: ... As used with reference to a persons reputation, "neighborhood"means in general any community or society where person is well known & has established a reputation.
Oath: Any form of attestation by which a person signifies that he is bound in conscience to preform an act faithfully & truthfully. ... An affirmation of truth of a statement which renders one willfully asserting untrue statements punishable for perjury. An outward pledge by the person taking it that his attestation or promise is made under an immediate sense of responsibility to God. Solemn appeal to the Supreme Being in attestation of the truth of some statement. An external pledge or asseveration, made in verification of statements made, or to be made, coupled with an appeal to a sacred or venerated object, in evidence of the serious & reverent state of mind of the party, or with an invocation to the supreme being to witness the words of the party, & to visit him with punishment if they be false. In its broadest sense, the term is used to include all forms of attestation by which a party signifies that he is bound in conscience to preform the act faithfully & truly.
Purgatory Oath: An oath by which a person purges or clears himself from presumptions, charges or suspicions standing against him, or from a contempt.
Organic Law: The fundamental law, or constitution, of a state or nation, written or unwritten; that law or system of laws or principles which defines and establishes the organization of its government. St. Louis v Dorr, 145 Mo. 466, 46 SW 976, 42 LRA 686, 68 Am St Rep 575.
Black's Law Dictionary, 4th Ed., West Pub. (1968) pg.1251
Peace: "That state & sense of safety which is necessary to the comfort & happiness of every citizen, & which government is instituted to secure. State v. Boles, 5 Conn.Cir. 22, 240 A.2d 920, 927. ... means tranquility enjoyed by citizens of the municipality or community where good order reigns among its members. The tranquility enjoyed by a political society internally, by the good order which reigns among its members, & externally by the good understanding which it has with all other nations. (more)
Public Peace: The peace or tranquility of the community in general; the good order and repose of the people comprising a state or municipality. That invisible sense of security which every man feels so necessary to his comfort, and for which all governments are instituted.
Public peace& quiet: Peace, tranquility, & order & freedom from agitation or disturbance; the security, good order, & decorum guaranteed by civil society and by the law.
Peace of the state: The protection security & immunity from violence which the state undertakes to secure & extend to all persons within its jurisdiction & entitled to the benefit of its laws. This is part of the definition of murder, it being necessary that victim should be "in the peace of the state", which now practically includes all persons except armed public enemies. See Murder. And see Starte v. Dunkley, 25 N.C. 121 (Blacks 4th)
Political subdivision. A division of the state made by proper authorities thereof, acting within their constitutional powers, for purpose of carrying out a portion of those functions of statewhich by long usage and inherent necessities of government have always been regarded as public. State ex rel: Maisan v. Mitchell, 155 Conn. 256, 231 A. 2d. 539, 542.
Privy Token: A false mark or sign , forged object, counterfeited letter, key, ring, etc., used to deceive persons, & thereby fraudulently obtain possession of property. A false privy token is a false privy document or sign , not such as is calculated to deceive men generally, but designed to defraud one or more individuals. Cheating by such false token was not indictable at common law.
Privy: A person who is in privity with another. One who is a partner or has any part or interest in any action, matter, or thing.
As an adjective, the word has practically the same meaning as "private".
Probus et legalis homo: A good & lawful man. A phrase particularly applied to a juror or witness who was free from all exception, & competent in point of law to serve on juries. In the plural form : probi et legalis homines.
Purgation: The act of cleansing or exonerating ones self of a crime, accusation or suspicion of guilt by denying the charger on oath or by ordeal.
Canonical purgation was made by a party's taking his own oath that he was innocent of the charge, which was supported by the oath of 12 compurgators, who swore they believed he spoke the truth. To this succeeded the mode of purgation by single oath of the party himself, called "oath ex officio", of which the modern defendant's oath in chancery is a modification. 3. Bl.Comm. 447; 4 Bl.Comm, 368.
Positive Law: Law actually and specifically enacted or adopted by proper authority for the government of an organized jural society.
Quo Warranto: /kwow wera'entow/. In old English practice, a writ in the nature of a writ of right for the king, against him who claimed or usurped any office, franchise, or liberty, to inquire by what authority he supported his claim, in order to determine the right. It lay also in case of non-user, or long neglect of a franchise, or misuser or abuse of it; being a writ commanding the defendant to show by what warrant he exercises such a franchise, having never had any grant of it, or having forfeited it by neglect or abuse. 3 Bl.Comm. 262.
An extraordinary proceeding, prerogative in nature, addressed to preventing a continued exercise of authority unlawfully asserted. Johnson v. Manhattan Ry. Co., N.Y., 289 U.S. 479, 53 S.Ct. 721, 77 L.Ed. 1331. It is intended to prevent exercise of powers that are not conferred by law, and is not ordinarily available to regulate the manner of exercising such powers.
The remedy of "quo warranto" belongs to the state, in it's sovereign capacity, to protect the interests of the people as a whole and guard the public welfare, and it is a preventative remedy addressed to preventing a continued exercise of an authority unlawfully asserted, rather than correcting what has already been done under that authority. Citizens Utilities Co. of Cal. V. Superior Court, Alameda County, 56 Cal. App.3d 399, 128 Cal.Rptr. 582, 588. "Quo warranto" is legal action whereby legality of exercise of powers by municipal corporation may be placed in issue. People ex rel. City of Des Plaines v. Village of Mount Prospect, 29 Ill.App.3rd 807, 331 N.E.2d 337, 377.
The federal rules are applicable to proceedings for quo warranto "to the extent that the practice in such proceedings is not set forth in statutes of the United States and has heretofore conformed to the practice in civil actions." Fed.R. Civil P. 81 (a)(2). Any remedy that could have been obtained under the historic writ of quo warranto may be obtained by a civil action of that nature. U.S. v. Nussbaum, D.C.Cal., 306 F.Supp. 66.
Right: As a Noun, and taken in the abstract sense, means justice, ethical correctness, or consonance with the rules of law or the principles of morals. In this signification it answers to one meaning of the Latin "jus", and serves to indicate law in the abstract, considered as the foundation of all rights, or the complex of underlying moral principles which impart the character of justice to all positive law, or give it ethical content. ... And the primal rights pertaining to men ... existing prior to positive law. But leaving the abstract moral sphere and giving to the term a juristic content, a "right" is well defined as "a capacity residing in one man of controlling, with the assent & assistance of the state, the actions of others."
As an adjective, the term "right" means just, morally correct, constant with ethical principles or rules of positive law. It is the opposite of wrong, unjust, illegal. ...
A legally enforceable claim of one person against another, that the other shall do a given act or not do a given act. Restatement of the Law of Property, ss 1.
That which one person ought to have or receive from another, it being with held from him, or not in his possession. In this sense, "right" has the force of "claim", and is properly expressed by the Latin "jus"....
Natural rights are those which grow out of the nature of man and depend upon personality, as distinguished from such as are created by law and depend upon civilized society; ... they are those which are plainly assured by natural law; ... those which, by fair deduction from the present physical, moral, social, and religious characteristics of man, he must be invested with, and which he ought to have realized for him in a jural society, in order to fulfill the ends to which his nature calls him.
Right of local self government: Power of citizens to govern themselves, as to matters purely local in nature, through officers of their own selection. City of Ardmore v. Excise Board of Carter County, 155 Okl. 126, 8 P.2d 2, 11. See Home rule.
Starr or starra. The old term for contract or obligation among the Jews, being a corruption from the Hebrew word "shetar", a covenant, ... & Blackstone conjectures that the room in which the chests were kept was thence called the "Star-Chamber"."
Star Chamber: A court which originally had jurisdiction in cases where the ordinary course of justice was so much obstructed by one party, ... that no inferior court would find its process obeyed. ... In the reign of Henry the 8th, & his successors, the jurisdiction of the court was illegally extended to such a degree (especially in punishing the kings arbitrary proclamations) that it became odious to the nation, & was abolished.
State: A people permanently occupying a fixed territory bound together by common-law habits and custom into one body politic, exercising, through the medium of an organized government, independent sovereignty and control over all persons and things within its boundaries, capable of making war and peace and of entering into international relations with other communities of the globe. United States v. Kusche, D.C.Cal., 56 F.Supp. 201, 207, 208. The organization of social life which exercises sovereign power on behalf of the people. Delaney v. Moraitis, C.C.A.Md., 136 F.2d 129, 130. In its largest sense, "state" is a body politicor a society of men. Beagle v Motor Vehicle Acc. Indemnification corp., 44 Misc.2d 636, 254 N.Y.S. 763, 765. A body of people occupying a definite territory and politically organized under one government. State ex rel. Maisano v. Mitchell, 155 Conn. 256, 231 A.2d 539, 542. A territorial unit with a distinct general body of law. Restatement, Second, Conflicts, ss 3. Term may refer to a body politic of a nation (e.g. United States) or to an individual governmental unit of such nation (e.g. California).
The section or territory occupied by one of the United States. One of the component commonwealths or states of the United States of America. The term is sometimes applied also to governmental agencies authorized by state, such as municipal corporations. Any state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any territory or possession subject to the legislative authority of the United States. Uniform Probate Code, ss 1-201(40).
The people of a state, in their collective capacity, considered as the party wronged by a criminal deed, the public, as in the title of a cause, "The State vs A.B."
Term "state" as used in rules providing when a state may appeal in a criminal case is all inclusive and intended to include not only the state but its political subdivisions, counties and cities. Spokane County v. Gifford, 9 Wash.App. 541, 513 P.2d 301, 302. Federal Government is a "state" bound by all of provisions of the Interstate Agreement on Detainers. Enright v. U. S., D.C.N.Y., 437 F.Supp, 580 581.
The circumstances or condition of a being or thing at a given time.
Foreign State. A foreign country or nation. The several United States are considered "foreign" to each other except as regards their relations as common members of the Union. ...
State Ex Rel: See "Ex Rel"
Sui Juris: Of his own right; possessing full social and civil rights; not under any legal disability, or the power of another, or guardianship. Having capacity to manage ones own affairs: not under legal disability to act for one's own self.
Tenancy: ... "Joint Tenancy": An estate in fee-simple, fee tail, for life, for years, or at will, arising by purchase or grant to two or more persons. Joint tenants have one and the same interest, accruing by one and the same conveyance, commencing at one and the same time, and held by one and the same undivided possession. The primary incident of joint tenancy is survivorship, by which the entire tenancy on the decease of any joint tenant remains to the survivors, and at length to the last survivor. Type of interest in real or personal property by two or more persons in which each owns an undivided interest in the whole, and attached to which is the right of survivorship. Single estate in property owned by two or more persons under one instrument or act. D'Ercole v. D'Ercole, D.C.Mass., 407 F.Supp. 1377, 1380.
"Tenancy in Common": Joint Interest in which ... all are entitled to equal use and possession.
"Tithing Man: A constable. ... annually elected to preserve order ... and to make complaint of any dis-orderly conduct. ... the head or chief of a tithing or decennary of ten families; he was to decide all lesser causes between neighbors. In modern English Law, he is the same as an under-constable or peace-officer."
"Tithing: One of the civil divisions of England, being a portion of the greater division called a "hundred". It was so called because ten freeholders with their families composed one. It is said that they were all knit together in one society, and bound ... for the peaceable behavior of each other. In each of these societies there was one chief or principle person, who, from his office, was called "teothing-man" now "tithing-man".
Token: A sign or mark; the material evidence of the existence of a fact. A sign or indication of an intention to do something as in the case of one who places a small order to show good faith to a seller with a view towards placing a larger order at a future time.
Trial: ... Trial by wager of law. In old English law, a method of trial, where the defendant, coming into court, made oath that he did not owe the claim demanded of him, and eleven of his neighbors, as compurgators, swore that they believed him, to speak the truth.
Venue: Formerly spelled visne. In common law pleading & practice, a neighborhood; the neighborhood, place, or county in which an injury is declared to have been done, or fact declared to have happened. 3 Bl.Comm. 294. ... Venue deals with locality of suit, that is, with question of which court, or courts, of those that posses adequate personal & subject matter jurisdiction may hear the specific suit in question. Japan Gas Lighter Ass'n v. Roson Corp., D.C.N.J., 257 F.Supp. 219, 224. It related to a place where or a territory within which either party may require case to be tried. Coushing v. Doudistal, 278 Ky. 799, 129 S.W.2d 527, 528, 530. It has relation to convienience of litigants & may be waived or laid by consent of parties. Iselin v. La Coste, C.C.A.La., 147 F.2d 791, 795.